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Indo-Bangladesh ministerial meet on rivers: a precursor to win-win deal for both sides?

Mashrur Siddique Bhuiyan* 

After a decade of hiatus, the long-awaited 38th ministerial-level meeting of the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Rivers Commission concluded in New Delhi on August 25 to discuss water-sharing issues as the two countries share 54 rivers. The Joint Rivers Commission of India and Bangladesh was established in 1972 as a bilateral mechanism to address common border and trans-boundary river issues of mutual interest. 
This time, the meeting is significant for two reasons: first, both countries resumed the meeting after a decade in order to work closely together to further deepen and strengthen cooperation in the areas of common rivers and water resource management; and second, the JRC meeting, the first since 2010, comes ahead of Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s three-day visit to India in the first week of September at the invitation of her Indian counterpart, Narendra Modi.
The visit symbolized the partnership of half a century between India and Bangladesh that has "strengthened, matured, and evolved" as a model for bilateral relations for the entire region.
At the 38th ministerial-level Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) meeting, Bangladesh and India discussed "issues related to water-sharing treaties" on various rivers, including the Teesta and Ganga. Zaheed Farooque, State Minister for Water Resources, led the 17-member Bangladesh delegation at the JRC meeting, while India's Jal Shakti (Water Resources) Minister Gajendra Singh Shakhawat led the Indian delegation.
The meeting was preceded by a Water Resources Secretary-level interaction that took place on August 23, 2022, where officials from both the two countries had a threadbare discussion on water sharing and other issues.
The ministerial-level discussions, however, revolved around the water-sharing treaties of the Teesta and six other common rivers that included Muhuri, Dharla, Khowai, Monu, Dudhkumar, and Gumti. Apart from this, a number of ongoing bilateral issues of mutual interest were covered in detail, including river water sharing of common rivers, exchange of flood related data and information, joint studies on sedimentation management, river bank protection works, addressing river pollution, common basin management, and the Indian River Interlinking Project.
During the meeting, both sides finalised the text of the MoU on Interim Water Sharing of the Kushiyara River which is likely to be signed during Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina's visit to New Delhi on September 6-7. According to the JRC, Bangladesh wants to use the Kushiyara river's water to cultivate crops on 5,000 acres of land in Sylhet.
Through three canals, water will be extracted from the river and irrigated croplands. Both sides also welcomed finalization of the design and location of a water intake point on the Feni river to meet the drinking water needs of Sabroom town in Tripura. India was taking 1.82 cusecs of water from the Feni river under an interim agreement signed in October 2019.
India and Bangladesh share 54 rivers, of which seven rivers have been identified earlier for developing the framework of water sharing agreements on priority. The JRC meeting agreed to add eight more common rivers for the exchange of data and information towards the preparation of the draft framework of the interim water sharing agreement. It is worth mentioning that one of the important areas of Indo-Bangladesh cooperation is the sharing of real-time flood data, which is helping Bangladesh address unforeseen flood events.
JRC meeting, first since 2010, comes ahead of Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s 3-day visit to India
India and Bangladesh agreed in principle on river water sharing of common rivers, sharing of flood data, addressing river pollution, conducting joint studies on sedimentation management, river bank protection works.
According to a press release issued by Bangladesh's foreign ministry, India will make its utmost efforts to conclude the much-talked about and long-pending Teesta Water Sharing agreement soon when the Bangladesh delegation raised the issue at the meeting. According to the framework of an interim agreement finalised in 2010, the two sides agreed to share Teesta water on a fair and equitable basis with the 50:50 water-sharing ratio, keeping 20 per cent of the water as environmental flow during the lean season.
The Teesta deal was set to be signed during the then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s visit to Bangladesh in September 2011 but was postponed at the last minute due to objections raised by West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee. Banerjee had expressed strong reservations against giving Bangladesh a greater share of water from the Teesta river.
Besides, the issues relating to the renewal of the Ganges water sharing treaty were also prominently discussed in the meeting as the deal would expire in 2026. Both sides agreed to conduct a feasibility study for optimum utilization of water received by Bangladesh under the provisions of the Ganges Water Sharing Treaty, 1996. It is noted that the 30 year-long landmark Ganges water sharing agreement between Bangladesh and India was signed in 1996 during the regime of Awami League government.
It is observed that India has recently shed light on the issue of water management of the common rivers. At an international conference on rivers in Guwahati, India's external affairs minister S Jaishankar mentioned the issue of coordinated action for water management of 54 common rivers. Thus, it is expected that the JRC ministerial meeting would further strengthen the friendly relations between the two countries through mutual understanding. It is expected that the meeting would help both sides understand each other's positions better for a meaningful outcome.
However, despite speculations, Dhaka and New Delhi didn’t finalize an agreement on the sharing of Teesta water before Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina's forthcoming visit to India. The JRC discussion on the issue would stress to recognize the sufferings of the people of both sides in the face of the scarcity of lean season flows of the Teesta River and strike a win-win deal that is beneficial for both sides.
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*Geo-political commentator on South Asia region based in Dhaka

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