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Showing posts from July, 2013

Gujarat govt refuses to concede demand to denotify Bhechraji-Mandal SIR, farmers feel "cheated"

By Our Representative Gujarat government has refused to accept the main demand of the Jameen Adhikar Andolan Gujarat (JAAG) for cancellation of the special investment region (SIR) notification for the Bhechraji-Mandal SIR, proposed as an industrial hub spread over 44 villages encompassing 530 sq km. A JAAG communique, following a meeting between JAAG representatives in Gandhinagar with a ministerial committee appointed by Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi to look into JAAG demands, said, "The ministers categorically refused to entertain the demand for withdrawal of the SIR notification."

Warning bells for India: Tribal exploitation by powerful corporate interests may turn into international issue

By Ashok Shrimali*
Warning bells are ringing for India. Even as news drops in from Odisha that Adivasi villages, one after another, are rejecting the top UK-based MNC Vedanta's plea for mining, a recent move by two senior scholars Felix Padel and Samarendra Das suggests the way tribals are being exploited in India by powerful international and national business interests may become an international issue. In fact, one has only to count days when things may be taken up at the United Nations level, with India being pushed to the corner. Padel, it may be recalled, is a major British authority on indigenous peoples across the world, with several scholarly books to his credit.

Fresh danger to democracy: Candidates with criminal records have better chances to win, says ADR-NEW

By Our Representative In a new analysis, Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) and National Election Watch (NEW) have found that out of 62,847 candidates who contested either Parliamentary or State Assembly Elections since 2004, as many as 11,063 18% had declared that they had criminal cases against themselves. Further, of the 8,790 candidates (8%) candidates had declared that they had serious criminal cases against themselves.

Environmental group Toxics Watch Alliance opposes shipbreaking yard at Mundra, asks GoI to scrap project

By Our Representative Ahead of the crucial environmental public hearing (EPH) of the Adani Port and Special Economic Zone Ltd. for the proposed ship recycling facility at village Tunda, taluka Mundra, district Kutch, scheduled for July 30, 2013, top environmental NGO Toxics Watch Alliance (TWA) has in a strongly-worded letter to the chairman of the inter-ministerial committee (IMC) on ship breaking, Union Ministry of Steel, asked for not allowing the proposed project.The TWA has made its conclusions on the basis of the what it calls "lessons learnt from the destruction of coastal environment at Alang beach", which allegedly "create a compelling logic against yet another ship breaking beach in India."

Govt of India finally decides to bring in new mental healthcare bill to address "inadequacies" in the system

By Our Representative Mental Healthcare Bill 2012, a considered a path-breaking law, is learnt to have received approval from the Indian Cabinet and is now awaiting parliamentary nod away from being enacted. Reliable sources close to the development say, after ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2008, India was "under obligation to amend its disability laws to meet CRPD norms".

RTI application reveals in a decade Gujarat govt handed over 81.95 crore sq m farm land to industrial houses

By Our Representative
A right to information (RTI) application has revealed that the Gujarat government has acquired and handed over a whopping 81.95 crore square metres of land to top industrial houses, most of it dirt cheap, over the last one decade. It also revealed that the price at which the land -- which belonged to farmers, or was common village gochal land meant for cattle -- varied between a mere Re 1 to Rs 900, depending on the area, but in every case much less than the prevailing market rate.

"People's charter" opposes nuclear plant for Mithi Virdi in Gujarat, says India is on "suicidal path"

By Our Representative A people's charter on nuclear energy was adopted at a convention of prominent intellectuals and activists in Ahmedabad which voiced concern of the people of Mithi Virdi (Gujarat), along with other places where nuclear power plants are being put up -- such as Koodankulam (Tamil Nadu), Jaitapur (Maharashtra), Kovvada (Andhra Pradesh), Gorakhpur (Haryana), Chutka (Madhya Pradesh) and Haripur (West Bengal). It supported what it called "relentless struggles against these anti-people and unsafe nuclear power projects being promoted by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL)".

Jharkhand rights movement writes to NHRC to probe police firing on protesters against thermal project

By Ashok Shrimali*
The Jharkhand Human Rights Movement has asked Satyabrata Pal, member, National Human Rights Commission, to urgently investigate and take "necessary legal action" on police firing, took place at Pagar village comes under Keredari police station of Hazaribagh district in Jharkhand at 1 pm on July 23, 2013, which led to death of Mr. Kesar Mahato and caused several injuries.

Gujarat slips in poverty reduction rank from ninth to 11th in three years, suggests Planning Commission study

By Rajiv Shah
Latest Planning Commission estimates suggest a major setback to Gujarat as far as poverty reduction is concerned. If between 2004 and 2010, Gujarat witnessed 8.6 per cent reduction in poverty, which was higher than the national average of 7.4 per cent, between 2010 and 2012 not only the percentage of poverty reduction come down to 6.4 per cent, it was below the national average of 7.9 per cent, too. Worse, if during 2004-10 Gujarat’s poverty reduction rate was higher than in as many as eight states, the number of states which saw a higher poverty reduction in the 2010-12 phase went up to 10 out of 20 major states.

Good governance in Gujarat? Labour has "no value", industry's wage bill is less than most states

By Our Representative Top Gujarat-based social scientist, Prof Ghanshyam Shah, has accused the Gujarat government of "overtly and covertly undermined the existing labour laws which provide some protection to workers" in order to invite investments in Gujarat. "The state government has amended labour legislations to provide freedom to industry to employ labour on contract basis", he said, adding, the result is, "Ahmedabad has the lowest labour costs among the major cities in India, with labour costs less than 50 per cent of those in Delhi and 40 per cent below those in Pune."

Samerth study points towards poor state of Integrated Child Development Scheme in Gujarat's minority area

Counterview Desk
A study by Samerth, a non-government organisation working among the backward sections of Muslim population in Ahmedabad, has found that there is not just a tremendous shortage of anganvadis among the minority pockets, especially in the Juhapura area, but also whatever anganvadis operate they are extremely poorly equipped to take care of small children. Part of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) launched by the Government of India, the areas where the study was carried out had a very high percentage of children, forming about 39.5 per cent of the population.

Go tough against industrial estate units in Central Gujarat dumping effluents in village pond: Environmentalists

By Our Representative In major environmental disaster in Central Gujarat, the Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) estate in Penoli has been found illegally filling up a huge village pond nearby with untreated effluents flowing out of the industrial units. Top environmentalists belonging to the Paryavaran Suraksha Samiti, Vadodara, Rohit Prajapati, Kantibhai Mistry, Ziya Pathan and Trupti Shah, backed by villagers under deputy sarpanch Salim Patel, have claimed that thanks to their intervention Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) officials were forced to visit Sanjali village, whose pond was polluted like this.

Fisherfolk walk of out public hearing on Bhadbhut project, say it would adversely affect their livelihood

By Our Representative
Gujarat government-sponsored environmental public hearing for the proposed Rs 4,000 crore Bharbhut barrage project on river Narmada’s mouth in Bharuch district has proved to a non-starter. While as many as 1,500 farmers and fisherfolk turned up to attend the hearing on July 19, they all walked out, en mass, soon after sharply registering their protest against the proposed project as “anti-people”. The walkout took place immediately after Pravin Tandel, the fisherfolks’ local leader, spoke saying the project would “adversely affect the fish catch, especially Hisla, once the it is implemented.”

Setback to raise Narmada dam? MP High Court asks govt to stop cash payment to oustees in lieu of land

By Our Representative In an order which can adversely affect further construction of the Narmada dam, the Madhya Pradesh High Court has given its accent to the right to land-based rehabilitation of thousands of Sardar Sarovar Project affected families (PAFs), directing the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) and the Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) to stop all cash payments in lieu of land entitlements. Recently, a high-level inter-state meeting in New Delhi cleared the proposal to raise the dam height to full reservoir level, 138.64 metres from the present 121.92 metres.

Lack of transparency, casual attitude on the part of top Central child rights body baffle activists

By Our Representative
A high-level consultation in Ahmedabad by the National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), New Delhi, a statutory body under the ministry of woman and child, Government of India, is said to have left several state non-government organisations (NGOs) dissatisfied over the top body's refusal to show transparency. Chaired by Nina Nayak, member, NCPCR, with consultant Swati Chavla sitting next to her, a statement by Dalit Hak Rakshak Manch (DHRM), one of the participating organisations, said, while the meeting was meant for discussing issues on child rights, the media was not invited. On the other hand, state intelligence bureau (IB) persons sat through to note what all Gujarat activists had to say.

Declaring there are no divisions, JAAG decides to agitate against pro-SIR lobby in Mandal-Becharaji region

By Our Representative
The Jameen Adhikar Andolan Gujarat (JAAG) and the Azad Vikas Sangathan, the two main organisations campaigning against the Mandal-Bhecharaji special investment region (SIR) in North Gujarat, have sharply criticised certain unnamed "individual in the business of land dealings" for "raising a pro-SIR voice." A joint statement issued by them said, they have "gone to Gandhinagar with their demand", adding, "We need to remain alert and continue our efforts to strengthen the local organisation, the Azad Vikas Sangathan, and the movement against the SIR."

Pressure from Gujarat powerdom forces JAAG to hold consultations on whether to continue anti-SIR stir

By Our Representative
Two senior leader of of Jameen Adhikar Aandolan Gujarat (JAAG), which is behind the campaign against the Mandal-Bhechraji special investment region (SIR), Lalji Desai and Sagar Rabari, have finally admitted that the movement they were leading today stands divided in the face of the powerful offensive launched by the Gandhinagar rulers. In a statement, they have explained how this happened starting with July 9.

Non-resident Indians sign online petition to President of India to cover political parties under RTI ambit

By Our Representative
Over 700 non-resident Indians and citizens have signed onto an online petition addressed to the President of India, expressing their support for the decision of the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) on June 3, 2013, to bring six national political parties of India under the purview of the Right to Information (RTI) Act. Since the national political parties receive substantial funding from the government for their functioning, they were deemed by the CIC as public authorities, under Sections 2(a) and 2(h)(d) of the RTI Act.

Medha Patkar refuses any out-of-court settlement in the infamous attack on her at Sabarmati Ashram in 2002

By Our Representative Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) leader Medha Patkar has refused any compromise with Ahmedabad-based businessman-cum-activist VK Saxena of the National Council for Civil Liberties in the Sabarmati Ashram case, in  which she and other activists were attacked during participation in a protest meeting against the Gujarat riots in 2002. The refusal came in the wake of a suggestion from the judicial magistrate at Saket Court, New Delhi, who  was hearing defamation case filed by her against Saxena, and vice versa.

Rate of growth of real wages of rural workers in Gujarat slower than most states, suggests study by ex-ILO scholar

By Rajiv Shah Close on the heels of the latest National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) data having revealed that average wages paid both in organized and unorganized sectors in Gujarat are one of the lowest in the country (click HERE for the report), a new study has found that the rise wages in the state has remained dormant for nearly a decade. Carried out by AV Jose, formerly with the International Labour Organisation's permanent secretariat in Geneva, and now associated with the Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, the study, titled “Changes in Wages and Earnings of Rural Labourers” has found that an average male worker in Gujarat who earned Rs 100 in 2001, earned Rs 114 in 2010, while the average female worker who earned Rs 100 in 2001, earned Rs 119 in 2010.

Fresh setback to top state PSU: Gujarat's KG adventure again fails to get environmental, CRZ clearance

By Our Representative
The Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC), the premier state public sector undertaking (PSU), has again failed to get environmental and coastal regulatory zone (CRZ) clearance for its proposed onshore gas terminal, a 20 MW captive power plant, 20 underground gas pipelines along with optical fibre cable (OFC), and 10 inches effluent disposal pipeline -- of which it badly needs for commercial production of KG basin gas it struck several years ago. Some of these facilities were to pass through CRZ area of Yanam-Puducherry along the Andhra Pradesh coast. It simultaneously  failed to get clearance for its offshore process-cum-living quarter platform in KG Basin in Andhra sea, where the top PSU had claimed in 2005 to have found 20 trillion cubic metres (tcf) of gas -- a claim which has been questioned.

Death of three workers in Surat sewerage plant: What's there to investigate now, wonder NGOs

By Our Representative
No sooner the Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) constituted a committee to "investigate" if there was  negligence on part of the contractor, Enviro Control Associates, operating the sewage treatment plant (STP) at Singanpore, where three contract labourers died on July 9 because of suffocation in a chamber of the plant, voluntary organisations fighting for the cause of manual scavengers in Gujarat have declared it is an "eye-wash." The committee consists of three members -- city engineer Jatin Shah, former city engineer V D Patel and associate professor of L D Engineer College, C G Bhagchandan.

The young man from Reuters who interviewed Modi was clueless about Gujarat 2002

By Teesta Setalvad* Seven days before Reuters published its exclusive, a privilege denied by PM aspirant to an Indian news agency or channel, we had been contacted persistently by a Reuters correspondent while I was in New Delhi (July 5). Not Ross Colvin or Sruthi Gottipati who now carry the journalistic honour of grabbing moments with a man who rarely likes to be questioned, especially if the questions are persistent like say those of Karan Thapar in 2007.

Is Gujarat govt camouflaging dropout data of lower primary? Flash data show very high repeaters

By Rajiv Shah
Is the Gujarat government hiding a high dropout rate at the primary level in the state, especially at the lower level (grades 1 to 5)? It would seem so, considering that the latest data, provided by the Gujarat government to the Union ministry of human resources suggest a very high "repetition rate" at the lower primary level, 6.67 per cent, as against the national average of half as much, 3.17 per cent. In fact, it is the the second highest in the country -- next to West Bengal's 10.90 per cent and equal to Bihar. The data are reflected in the latest "Flash Statistics" of "Elementary Education in India: Towards Universal Elementary Education", put out by the Government of India, put out this month.

Medha Patkar vs Gautam Adani in MP? Green tribunal admits petition against Adanis' Chhindwada power project

By Our Representative
The National Green Tribunal (NTG) has admitted application against the Adani Pench Power Project, filed by Medha Patkar, Aradhana Bhargava and farmers of the Kisan Sangharsh Samiti, Chhindwada. The National Allianace for People's Movements (NAPM), the apex body of several people's organisations across India,  has said, "In a significant order dated on July 11, 2013, the Principal Bench of the National Green Tribunal, New Delhi, permitted Medha Patkar, Aradhana Bhargava, Sajje Rao and other project affected villagers to go ahead with the petition filed by them, challenging the environmental clearance (EC) granted to the Adani Pench Thermal Power Project in Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh."

JAAG leaders "satisfied" after their meeting with Gujarat chief minister, who evaded talk on withdrawing SIR Act

By Our Representative
Lalji Desai and Sagar Rabari, main leaders of the Jameen Adhikar Andolan Gujarat (JAAG), have claimed "victory of the people’s movement" against the Mandal-Bechraji special investment region (SIR). A statement issued by them suggests that they were "convinced" by Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi, who met them in Gandhinagar on Thursday. The meeting came amidst apprehensions among a section of activists fighting against the SIR that the movement would fizzle out, as it is mainly led by rich and propertied land owners, who had limited interest in ensuring that their landed interests were taken care of. Only one demand appeared to have been satisfied, that the Narmada command would not be de-commanded.

Gujarat campaign suggests people want political parties to be under RTI ambit

By Our Representative
Gujarat is witnessing a unique movement against the proposed amendment to the right to information (RTI) Act, which seeks to keep political parties out of the RTI ambit. While all political parties are supporting the amendment, a campaign by the Mahiiti Adhikar Gujarat Pahel (MAGP) has shown people are against it. The campaign -- which is spread to major cities, towns and villages -- last reached Surat, where awareness meetings were held in City Light Area, Maharana Pratap Garden and SVR college, Udhna-Magdalla road and Varachha road.

State-supported report warns of disaster in special situations because of Rs 4,000 crore Bharbhut barrage

Counterview Desk The new state-sponsored report, “Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment for the Proposed Barrage across River Narmada near Bhadbhut, Dist. Bharuch”, by Government of India consultants National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), has insisted on a “study of catastrophic flooding that may occur in the event of barrage … failure is of great concern and importance because of the risk of life and property in the down stream of the structure.” The report has been prepared for discussion at the environmental pubic hearing on the Rs 4,000 crore Bharbhut project, to take place on July 19 near Bharbhut.

It's official, Bharbhut barrage is for corporate sector: Industry to get lion's share from stored water

By Rajiv Shah
It is finally official. The proposed barrage at Bharbhut, which is to be built for Rs 4,000 crore on the mouth of Narmada river, and for whom an environmental public hearing is expected to take place on July 19 in Bharuch district, is slated to serve the corporate houses, who have heavily invested in the Bharuch-Dahej region. This is clear from the data provided by the state-sponsored report, "Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment for the Proposed Barrage Across River Narmada near Bhadbhut, Dist. Bharuch", by top consulting firm National Environmental Engineering Research Institute.

Proposed Bharbhut barrage across Narmada mouth has made fishermen uneasy, admits state-sponsored study

Counterview Desk In a major admission, a state-sponsored study, “Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment for the Proposed Barrage Across River Narmada near Bhadbhut, Dist. Bharuch”, by top consultants National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), has said that “in the event of construction of the barrage and the creation of the fresh water reservoir at the barrage, the concern of the fishermen regarding deprivation of the presently available fishing advantage is quite genuine that deserves very careful consideration for policy-level action.”

10,000 women protest against "black" special investment region Act in Dalod, demand its withdrawal

By Our Representative The movement against the plan to convert the Mandal-Bhecharji region into a special investment region (SIR) is fast acquiring a spontaneous character. Even as leaders of the Jamin Adhikar Andolan Gujarat (JAAG), who spearheaded the movement against SIR a year ago, were busy working out a new strategy in Gandhinagar's Ambedkar Hall, nearly 10,000 women met in village Dalod to on Monday to protest against the proposed Mandal-Bechraji SIR. "They had done so on their own, right from the planning to the logistics management", said Persis Ginwall, a senior activist involved in the movement.

83 gutter workers died of suffocation since 2005; kin of 32 have not received government compensation

By Our Representative The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has served a notice on the Gujarat government over the latter’s failure to pay compensation payable against the death of gutter workers in the state. The notice has asked Gujarat chief secretary Varesh Sinha to provide “complete details” on why compensation has still not been paid to the kin of as many as 29 safai kamdars. Under an August 2009 notification, the Gujarat government is obliged to pay Rs 2 lakh to the kin of those gutter workers who die on duty.

NCPCR team to visit Gujarat in July third week to inquire into implementation of right to education Act

By Our Representative A high-level National Protection for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) team is expected to visit Gujarat in the third week of July this year on the basis of inquiries it made following a recent NGO survey, “Study on Implementation of Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009”, which found that the Gujarat government has failed to implement the main provisions of the RTE. According to informed sources, the team is likely to particularly focus on Kutch schools, from where it got ground-level reports that the situation with regard to implementation of RTE is the worst, especially in the remote villages.

JAAG puts forward 10-point charter, says Gujarat government's land acquisition ways favouring corporates

By Our Representative In a strongly-worded statement, the Jameen Adhikar Andolan Gujarat's (JAAG), formed in the wake of the movement against the Bhecharaji-Mandal special investment region (SIR) and the threat to evict the farmers from their land, has said that the “situation in Gujarat on several fronts of livelihoods land, agriculture, water, common property resources is today more serious than ever before”, adding, “Reality in Gujarat is, big corporate houses are being gifted away large tracts of lands, including privately held agricultural lands as well as common property resources of pastureland, wastelands and water bodies.”

UNICEF comes down heavily on Gujarat's social indicators, says they do not keep pace with economic growth

By Our Representative
In a major criticism of Gujarat's social sector, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), has said that "from an ancient shipping power to modern-day industrial state, Gujarat is known for its vibrant economy", and "located on India’s west coast, the state has a bustling economy that offers families a per capita income which is higher than the national average" -- but as for "social development indicators" these "have not been able to keep pace with economic development in this state of over 60 million people."

More than 1,200 displaced storm NCA head office, challenge "illegal" decision to raise Narmada dam height

By Our Representative On July 2, about 1,200 women and men from the Narmada valley stormed and occupied the head office of the Narmada Control Authority (NCA), Narmada Bhavan at Vijay Nagar, Indore, which is responsible for taking final decisions on the Narmada project. They were protesting against the Government of India's interim decision to raise the height of the Narmada dam from 122 metres (present) to 138.68 metres (final height), taken on June 27 in New Delhi. Result was, claimed a communique from National Alliance of People's Movements (NAPM), "the final meeting of the NCA with the participating states, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, to finalize raising of the dam height was postponed".

Why did Modi visit Meghaninagar next to Gulbarg Society before going to Godhra?

Wonders the statement by Citizens for Peace and Justice on arguments of Zakia Jafri's protest petition in Ahmedabad. Full text:
Arguments in the Zakia Jafri Protest Petition against Narendra Modi and 59 Others continued for the fifth day on July 4, 2013 with counsel for Smt Jafri , Adv.Mihir Desai highlighting the deliberate lacunae by the Special Investigating Team in probing the illegal post mortems that were held in wide public view at the Godhra railway yard as part of the high-level Conspiracy masterminded by A-1 Narendra Modi with the full connivance of A-2 then health minister Ashok Bhatt, now deceased, A-5 Gordhan Zadaphiya and others, with the active participation of A-21 Jaideep Patel and other VHP men who were deliberately galvanized to use the fact and sight of the tragically burnt corpses to build up and spill venom against innocent members of the Muslim minority.

Gujarat to hire top PR firm to ensure publication of pro-Modi articles in national papers, coverage in TV

By Rajiv Shah The Narendra Modi government is learnt to have worked out a complete plan to reach out to the national media by hiring a top public relations (PR) management firm with headquarters in Delhi. Sources in the Commissionerate of Information, Government of Gujarat, say, the state government "intends to appoint a PR firm to create awareness about brand ‘Gujarat’ across India and the globe." The sources added, the aim is to "position Gujarat as one of India’s leading states across sectors by increasing visibility and enhancing ‘top of mind’ recall so as to make it an ideal destination amongst various stakeholders."

Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara see massive decline in job creation; most Indian cities witness upward trend

By Our Representative
The new job generation in Ahmedabad has declined by a whopping 19 per cent during the first quarter (Q1) of the ongoing financial year (FY) 2013-14 as against the corresponding period last year, according to a just concluded analysis carried out by apex industry body ASSOCHAM. “Even Ahmedabad’s share in total number of new jobs generated across India has plummeted from over three per cent a year ago to just over 2.5 per cent, while Delhi-NCR (national capital region) has remained numero uno in new job generation with maximum share of over 27 per cent compared to other cities across India,” according to a sector-specific analysis titled ‘Job Trends Across Cities & Sectors,’ conducted by The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM).

Women of 24 villages take out rally against the Mandal-Becharaji special investment region

By Our Representative
Thousands of women of 20 villages of Patadi and Mandal blocks organized a rally on July 1 against the proposed project in 24 villages falling in the Mandal-Becharaji special investment region (SIR) region, where  Maruti-Suzuki is planning its expansion plant. Gram sabhas were organized in all 24 villages at the conclusion of the rally in which the implications of the SIR on the area were discussed in detail, especially its adverse impacts on farmers, pastoralists and peasants of the region.

Gujarat CM advisor's strong rejoinder to Dr Kane: Smaller Kalpasar is more viable and is less costly

By Babubhai Navalawala*
Dr Anil Kane has made certain comments on Kalpasar Project and Bhadbhut barrage as published in www.counterview.net  (June 16, 2013). His comments are no doubt based on the information/status as per the pre-feasibility studies carried out during 1996-98 by M/S Haskoning and Six Specific Studies by International and National Consultants in the year 1999 for Kalpasar Project. Thus, first of all, it needs to be considered in the light of the updated status of the information. Accordingly, the status of each of the points made is as under.