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Showing posts from June, 2014

Schools in remote areas of Gujarat lack basic facilities, including girls' toilets, clean drinking water

By Our Representation
A survey by Navsarjan Trust, Ahmedabad's Dalit rights organization, has revealed that despite Gujarat government claims of one of the best infrastructure facilities compared to rest of India’s schools, things have failed to improve in remote and backward villages. In a representation handed over to the district education officer, the Baal Adhikar Suraksha Samiti, a local NGO working for child rights, has revealed, quoting the survey, how in several of the primary schools there are no separate toilets for girls, there is lack of basic seating facilities for children from classes 1 to 4, and computers, though installed, are not in use.

Order allowing only decontaminated ships to dismantle "not implemented": Death of migrants at Alang

By Our Representative
In a representation to KG Balakrishnan, chairperson, National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), Delhi, top civil rights activist Gopal Krishna of the Toxics Watch Alliance (TWA) has submitted that the death of "some 10 migrant workers"  on Alang beach, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, on June 28 suggests that the authorities continue to treat such accidents as a routine affair and have become “part of a pattern.” The deaths occurred due to a blast triggered by a suspected gas leak that took place in a ship being dismantled at the Alang ship-breaking yard in plot No 140.

Modi government warned of "stiff resistance" in case it moves to liberalize new land acquisition law

By Our Representative
Around 30 mass organizations, attached with the National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM), have strongly protested against the Government of India (GoI) move to bring about changes in the new land acquisition Act, saying any move in that direction will be met with “stiff resistance.” Asking the GoI to ensure its “strict implementation”, the NAPM, which is led by Narmada Bachao Andolan’s (NBA’s) Medha Patkar, said, “The news that two of the key provisions of the Act, consent and social impact assessment (SIA), are to be amended is completely unacceptable.”

Delayed rains in Gujarat: Official intervention sought to end anti-Dalit bias in sourcing drinking water

By Our Representative
While the officialdom seems worried about failure of rains in Gujarat, fresh information from the state’s rural areas suggest it is starting to affect the marginalized communities the most. A case in point is the plea to the Surendranagar district collector by a local women’s organization of Panva village, Patdi taluka of the district, seeking the top officialdom’s direct intervention to ensure that the Dalits get equal share of water supply. The Panva Mahila Adhikar Panch in its plea has alleged prevalence of untouchability practice against Dalit women in accessing water from the public well of the village.

Trend of intolerance towards dissent under Modi: Amnesty calls for decriminalization of free speech

By Our Representative
In an important submission before the Law Commission of India, the Amnesty International India has insisted on the need to undertake critical legal reforms to better defend the right to free speech. Saying that this is important against the backdrop of a “growing trend of intolerance towards dissent and criticism” in the recent weeks, elucidating the submission, Amnesty's senior policy adviser Shailesh Rai said, “Authorities have shown a worrying eagerness to arrest and detain people for the lawful exercise of their constitutional rights to free speech, especially when it concerns the new Prime Minister.”

Dalits of town near Ahmedabad protest against 5-yr delay in allocating housing plots set aside for them

By Our Representative
Hundreds of safai karmacharis, mainly belonging to the Dalit Valmiki community, have protested against the failure of the Gujarat government to allocate them land for building houses in Viramgam, a town situated in the neighbourhood of Ahmedabad, whose vicinity is likely to see major industrial activity in the near future. The local municipality gave a nod for two plots of land – Survey Nos 377 and 178-- measuring 21,954 square metres way back in 2010, so that they could build their own houses. But so far nothing has been done to allocate the land to the "neglected" families, many of whom are permanent members of municipality, while others are daily wagers.

Three top Modi ministers had "virtually no role to play" in the decision to raise Narmada dam height: NBA

By Our Representative
Top social activist, Narmada Bachao Andolan’s Medha Patkar, fighting against the Narmada dam for decades, has alleged that Prime Minister Narendra Modi “influenced” the Narmada Control Authority (NCA) “politically” to raise the Narmada dam’s height. She said, she was “shocked” that the decision of the NCA, the multi-state body authorized for all the decisions on the Narmada project, was taken “bypassing the three concerned Union ministers -- Uma Bharti (water resources), Thavaar Chand Gehlot (social justice and empowerment) and Prakash Javdekar (environment), all from Madhya Pradesh.”

Gujarat govt "solution" for workers suffering from deadly silicosis: Go in for alternative job sources

By Our Representative
Will the Gujarat government implement its word to pay compensation of paltry Rs 1 lakh against those who died because of the deadly occupational disease silicosis starting with 2007? While the amount itself is very small, in a recent decision, it decided to pay up the relatives of those who died while working in agate stone-cutting factories, mainly in Khambhat, with effect from January 2014. “We have been assured that the matter will be sorted out”, said Jagdish Patel of the People’s Training and Research Centre (PTRC), which works among silicosis workers. “However, it must await ministerial nod”, he added.

Decision to raise Narmada dam height taken in order to "help" Gujarat-based corporate houses: NBA

By Our Representative
The Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA), India’s most well-known anti-Narmada dam body, has said that the recent decision of the Government of India to raise the dam height from 121.92 metres to 139.68 metres has been reached with an eye on helping Gujarat-based “corporates and industries”, who have been “eyeing the Narmada waters and command area land” for quite some time. With this aim in mind, NBA added, “the Gujarat government plans to denotify 4 lakh hecatres (ha) of land from the command area and reserve it for corporates.”

Gas exploration: Reliance Industries' plea for even higher price than the one "offered" by Govt of India

By Our Representative
In a significant move, the Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) has declared that the “higher price” being offered by the Government of India to it for oil and gas exploration off Andhra Pradesh coast is “not market linked”, and it should get an even more, in keeping with market realities. The "revision", which the Government of India has still not formally announced, is from $4.2 per MMBtu (million British thermal units) to $8.4 MMBtu, which was challenged by several politicians, including Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) leader Arvind Kejriwal, who claimed it would mean a “windfall” of Rs 54,500 crore to the RIL.

Lack of transparency, accountability pulls Ahmedabad's ranking to No 10 in 21 Indian cities surveyed

Counterview Desk
A recent study, “Annual Survey of India’s City Systems (ASICS) 2014: Shaping India’s Urban Agenda”, has found that Ahmedabad ranks No 10th in a group of 21 selected cities selected for survey ascertaining quality of life survey across India. Claiming to an “objective evaluation of city-systems", taking into account  "complex, mostly invisible factors such as laws, policies, institutions, processes and accountability mechanisms that strongly influence quality of life in our cities”, the survey, carried out by a high-profile Bangalore-based NGO, Janaagraha, defines “quality of life” to mean “both quality of infrastructure and services, and quality of citizenship.” The only other city from Gujarat taken up for survey is Surat, which scores No 7 -- better than Ahmedabad.

Gujarat govt claims oustees "fully satisfied" with land acquired for Garudeshwar weir on Narmada

By Our Representative
The Gujarat government has claimed that villagers, whose land has been acquired for constructing the Garudeshwar weir across Narmada river, and 12 km from the Narmada dam site, were “fully satisfied” with the package offered to them decades ago. In said this in an affidavit filed before the National Green Tribunal (NGT) in response to a petition filed by Gujarat-based environmental body Paryavaran Suraksha Samiti (PSS), seeking stoppage of work at the weir, alleging the weir’s environmental and rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R) clearances have not been taken, as required by law.

Gujarat cops' move against top rights activist: Anticipatory bail plea in High Court postponed till July 9

By Our Representative
Gujarat High Court hearing in the anticipatory bail applications of top human rights activist Teesta Setalvad, her husband Javed Anand and three survivors of the 2002 Gulberg Society massacre of Gujarat, Tanvir Jafri, Salim Sandhi and Firoz Gulzar Pathan has been postponed till July 9, 2014. This happened, according to a statement issued by Setalvad’s NGO Centre for Justice and Peace (CJP), following a 96 page counter affidavit “complete with detailed records from audited accounts and bank statements disproving baseless allegations made by the Crime Branch, Ahmedabad.”

Upper primary: India govt report finds Gujarat has very high girl child school dropout, low enrollment

By Rajiv Shah
Just a week after Union human resources minister Smriti Irani came to Gujarat to “study” and “replicate” the Gujarat model of education, a high-level report, prepared by the Union ministry of human resources, operating directly under her, has come up with a big shocker: The report has found that girls’ dropout ratio in Gujarat at the upper primary level (classes 6 to 8) to be one of the highest in India, suggesting that Gujarat government’s kanya kelavni drive for ensuring girl child participation in education has failed to succeed.

UN official criticizes "caste-based" rape, murder in India; Human Rights Watch wonders if Modi will act

By Our Representative
Addressing the UN Human Rights Council at Geneva, Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, has sought to link the recent rape and murder of two teenage girls in Katra village of Uttar Pradesh with what she called sigma of “double assault of caste-based and gender-based discrimination”. Pillay told the conference, cosponsored by Human Rights Watch, that this stigma is further compounded by “discrimination based on their occupation and other socio-economic factors, including whether or not they are migrants.”

India's caste-based rapes echo at UN Rights Council: Authorities told to "act, end violence"

By Our Representative
Senior UN human rights officials at a United Nations Human Rights Council side-event at Geneva on June 17, 2014, have called for ”immediate efforts to end caste-based rape and violence against women” in India. The event, co-sponsored by Human Rights Watch, the top US-based rights group, ”followed urgent global calls for action from numerous human rights organizations, India’s UN representative, and policymakers from around the world in response to the gang-rape and hanging of two girls in India on May 27”, a statement issued by the International Dalit Salidarity Network, said.

National Human Rights Commission urged to intervene in Gujarat govt's "false" cases against Setalvad

By Our Representative
In an important move, the People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL), India’s top rights body, has sought “independent review and intervention” by the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) “to stop the continuing persecution and prosecution of human rights defenders, Teesta Setalvad and Javed Anand of the Citizens for Peace and Justice (CPJ), as also others. In a petition filed with the NHRC, the PUCL said, the intervention was needed as the Gujarat government was seeking institute “false” misappropriation cases. The cases were in retaliation of the fight they had put up for victims of communal riots in Gujarat.

IAS babu's appointment in Prime Minister's Office reversed "under pressure" from top industry house

By Our Representative
A top source, known to have worked in close proximity with former Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi before Modi took over as India’s Prime Minister, has raised an alarm: The appointment of RN Choubey, a 1981 batch IAS officer, in the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) was “cancelled” overnight “under pressure" from industrial houses, including Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL). While official reason being cited for this is, the Modi government doesn’t want the PMO to become “heavy top”, actually a similar situation prevailed in October 2013, when Choubey was eased out as director-general hydrocarbons (DGH) by the UPA government for "differing" with RIL.

Right to Information on Wheels, Gujarat initiative, begins Bharat Yatra from J&K amidst apprehensions on RTI

By Our Representative
Jammu & Kashmir Chief Minister Omar Abdullah flagged off Right to Information (RTI) Bharat Yatra on June 16 in Jammu, organized by Mahiti Adhikar Gujarat Pahel (MAGP) amidst clear signals emerging that the powerful tool promoting transparency may come under Government of India scanner, with efforts being made to point towards how RTI has become a "hindrance" to growth. Supported in J&K by Sangharsh J&K RTI Movement, the multi-media van, RTI on Wheels, will become the vehicle of MAGP’s RTI Bharat Yatra across India over the next few months.
In Jammu, Balvinder Singh, convenor, Sangarsh RTI Movement J&K stated, “RTI has proved to be a powerful tool in the hands of common citizens. It has helped efforts to make government transparent and accountable. It is necessary that the powerful tool reaches to common citizen.”

Don't make much of power benefits from Narmada dam; nod for full height "fraught" with inter-state dispute

By Our Representative In the years to come, will the Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) on the Narmada river no more remain an inter-state project, as has been widely claimed? If so far Gujarat government officials have been saying this (read HERE), of course of the record, now a senior water resources expert has suggested that this may well happen once the two states – Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh – fully utilize their share of water. Suhas Paranjape, who has long been associated with people’s movements on sustainable development, has told Counterview that the benefits of power – the factor which makes SSP inter-state – will not last forever, and the neghbouring states should better realize this.

Lurking suspicion: Greenpeace campaign against Adani "behind" IB indictment of top environmental NGO

By Our Representative Is there a direct relationship between the latest Intelligence Bureau (IB) report calling powerful environmental international NGO Greenpeace “as threat to national economic security” and the recent campaign by Greenpeace against Adani Group? It would seem so, if has a closer look at a new report titled “Research Briefing: Adani’s Record of Environmental Destruction and Non-compliance with Regulations”, which has been released alongside a fact sheet. Adanis are known to be close to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and there is already a view that the the IB’s effort was just move closer to the new masters (read HERE).

Gujarat "no urban model": Urban malnutrition levels are higher than rural areas, says govt document

By Our Representative
In a major admission, the Gujarat government in a recent document has gone to suggest that, far from being an urban model, Gujarat’s urban areas are extremely poorly managed. Giving figures, the document admits, malnutrition levels in the state’s urban areas are higher than rural areas, even as adding, 50 per cent of urban areas lack basic infrastructure like water and sanitation. The document says, in the urban areas, two per cent children are “severely malnourished” and 33 per cent are “moderately malnourished”, in the rural areas, 1.5 per cent are “severely malnourished” and 25.86 per cent are “moderately malnourished”.

IB report to Prime Minister Modi aimed at "intimidating, slandering, throttling, terrorizing" dissent

By Our Representative
The People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) has asked the Government of India not to criminalize dissent in the guise of Intelligence Bureau (IB) report on non-government organizations (NGOs), who it has claimed are seeking to “retard” the country’s growth because they raise people’s issues. Submitted to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the IB report, according to the PUCL, India’s premier human rights organization, has done nothing but to “intimidate, slander, throttle and terrorize the voice of various citizens' groups, NGOs and individuals.”

Gujarat tribal farmers' new aspiration: Allow us tractors, give quality power to irrigate agricultural land

By Our Representative
In a development that may create some flutter in the establishment, the Akhil Bharaiya Adivasi Ekta Andolan, Tapi, Gujarat, in what may appear to be an unprecedented representation to the district collector, has demanded that tribal farmers should be allowed to use tractors to till their lands they have lately come to own. Coming from an organization operating in a district whose majority of the population is tribal, the representation wonders, at a time when tribals are being recognized as farmers and given land to till under the forest rights Act, 2006, there is little reason why they should be deprived of the use of modern equipment till their land.

Narmada waters from dam meant for irrigating Gujarat's parched fields; producing power 'last priority'

By Our Representative
With the Narmada Control Authority (NCA), the powerful inter-state body working under the Government of India, having unanimously decided to raise the Narmada dam to the full reservoir level (FRL), 138.68 metres from 121.92 metres, a new apprehension is starting to grip the top Gujarat officialdom. Expressing the new fear, a senior official wondered, once the dam reaches its FRL, will the two neighbouring states, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, allow Gujarat to draw as much water as it wants for irrigation – at the expense of power being produced at the dam? Of would they raise objections, as they are more interested in power than irrigating Gujarat’s parched fields?

Senior journalist who broke fake encounter of Sohrabuddin Sheikh "sent" to Dhanbad in "punishment posting"

By Our Representative
Gujarat’s one of the most well-known senior journalists, Prashant Dayal, who shot into prominence nationally after al case of sedition was instituted against him for a series of scathing stories on then police commissioner OP Mathur in the Times of India in 2008, has been asked leave his chief reporter’s job and instead go to Dhanbad, Jharkhand, by his new bosses of the Bhaskar group. Reason? Says Dayal, “I refused to sign-up a letter forwarded to me by the management, which said I will not accept the Justice Majithia wage board award. It is a punishment posting, which I will not accept.”

Delay expected in eco-clearance of 3,500 Gujarat cases as Modi's Man Friday joins Prime Minister's Office

By Rajiv Shah
With Dr PK Misra, who was principal secretary to chief minister Narendra Modi during the 2002 riots, having left to Delhi as Prime Minister Modi’s additional principal secretary, Gujarat’s “industry-friendly” babus and small entrepreneurs are keeping their fingers crossed: What will happen to a whopping nearly 3,500 applications, said to be pending before the State-level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA), which he had just come to chair after the post remained vacant for nearly a year?

Cops were "indifferent" in filing FIR against culprits who attacked Dalit for fighting untouchability

By Our Representative
After the lapse of over a year, Jaspur village of Padra taluka in Vadodara district is once again in the spot. A year ago, on April 13, 2013, the Dalits of the village strongly protested against the dominant castemen providing separate seating arrangement for dinner to the Dalits during a public ceremony at the temple. Taking exception to this and saying that it amounted to treating them as “untouchables”, the Dalits, led by Shantilal Parmar, filed, with great difficulty, an anti-atrocities case against the organizers of the ceremony. “While meek action was taken against the culprits, a year later, the dominant caste leaders decided to retaliate”, Parmar alleged talking to Counterview.

Attack on Gandhian institute in Jaipur: Rajasthan chief minister's role comes under scanner

By Our Representative
In a statement, the National Alliance of People's Movements (NAPM), the powerful rights-based NGOs' network, has strongly condemned what it has called “highhanded and illegal action of the Jaipur Development Authority (JDA), operating directly under chief minister Vasundhara Raje, against the Rajasthan Samagra Seva Sangh, a well-known Gandhian institute. “The JDA has no authority to seal and vacate the premises of the institution and throw out its residents. It must restore the possession to the Sangh and wait for the pending decision in the High Court, rather than take this drastic and illegal step of sealing the premises”, the statement said.

Gujarat's consumer expenditure "not commensurate" with the state's growth rate: Official document

By Our Representative
Latest information from a well-placed Gujarat official source has revealed that Gujarat’s private consumer expenditure is not commensurate with the overall growth the state has been experiencing. Suggesting dormant capacity of private consumers as compared to many other states, the data – as found reflected in a top document yet to be made public – suggest that in 2011-12 Gujarat’s gross state domestic product (GSDP) at current prices was 611,767 crore, but the private consumer expenditure formed Rs 287,661 crore, or just about 47 per cent of the GSDP. If the data are any indication, this was the lowest percentage spent by an individual state in proportion to its GSDP.

Gujarat model for new budget? "Incentivize" high growth states for economic growth: Official document

By Rajiv Shah
Will the Government of India’s new policy framework for budget adopt the “model” worked out by the Gujarat government under Narendra Modi, in which the richer states should walk away with a much higher cake of the Central funds as compared to the poorer states? It would seem so, if one takes a closer look at one of the most crucial documents prepared by the Gujarat government late last year, but not made public because of reasons best known to the officialdom. Submitted to the Centre-appointed 14th Finance Commission, the document crucially calls for “an urgent need to include” a formula in devolution of Central funds which would “incentivize economic efficiency.”

UN Human Rights Council's 26th session likely to put on agenda Dalits' caste-based discrimination

By Our Representative Advance release of the opening remarks, which Navi Pillay, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, will be delivering at the Human Rights Council’s 26th session on June 10 at Geneva, reveals that the top UN body is all set to highlight issues pertaining to caste and Dalit discrimination as one of the major agendas during future discussions on human rights. Suggesting that caste-based discrimination as equal to the discrimination based on religion and race, Pillai, who is to be replaced by Jordan's Zeid Al Hussein soon, regrets, certain countries refuse to discuss contentious issues related to discrimination.

Gujarat govt "not implementing" National Green Tribunal orders on clean environment, alleges eco-group

Counterview Desk
Paryavaran Mitra, Gujarat’s environmental groups, has taken strong exception to the refusal of the Gujarat government to comply by orders of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) in cases fought with its active support. Prepared by Gujarat Social Watch, operating under the auspices of Paryavaran Mitra, its latest study, “Assessment of working of National Green Tribunal (NGT): With special reference to cases from Gujarat and western region bench of Pune”, has cited two such cases where the state officialdom has shown particular inertia.

Why is PM office silent on recent saffron attacks on dissenting views?, Ask 120 prominent citizens

By Our Representative
In an open statement, 120-odd prominent intellectuals have taken strong exception to the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) for remaining “silent on this blatant attack on curbing citizens’ free speech and expression” by the saffron brigade and its supporters. Blaming the state machinery for taking advantage of “the draconian Section 66A of the Information and Technology (IT) Act, 2000,” they have particularly opposes “criminal punishment” of up to three years for merely sending messages which can cause “annoyance” or “inconvenience” or “danger” or “insult”, and gives unfettered discretion to enforcement agencies to enforce it.

Industry-friendly Gujarat government is "not quite keen" on having a green tribunal bench in Ahmedabad

By Our Representative The Gujarat government is in no mood to accept the strong suggestion put forward by a well-attended seminar of senior environmentalists, environmental lawyers, experts and activists for a separate bench of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) in Ahmedabad. Called by Gujarat’s premier environmental body, Paryavaran Mitra, the suggestion was put forward by Mahesh Pandya, its director, in the presence of a senior environmental official of the state government, Hardik Shah. “The pollution level of Gujarat industries is very high, one of the highest in India, hence there is reason enough to have an NGT bench in Ahmedabad”, Pandya insisted.

Eight per cent of all right to information complaints in Gujarat relate to caste-based discrimination

By Our Representative
“Akkha gamna kaam thaay pan amara falia na koi kaam thata nathi”, Chitharbhai from one of the coastal villages in Gujarat complained over phone, pointing out that the authorities in the village, to which he belongs, have been discriminating against the Dalit colony while taking up public works. Bringing this to light, senior right to information activist, Pankti Jog has said, “This is one of the most common Dalit complaints I have received on my right to information (RTI) helpline, 9924085000.”

Authorities warned: Dalits may be forced to migrate from North Gujarat village if social boycott continues

By Our Representative
Threat of forced migration is looming large over the Dalit community of Kudol village of Modasa taluka in the newly-formed Aravalli district, North Gujarat, following an upper caste attack on a wedding procession on May 24, where social boycott has been imposed on Dalit families. The attack took place after several dominant castemen objected to the bridegroom riding a horse during the wedding procession, to which the Dalits refused. The procession was attacked despite the fact that eight policemen accompanied the procession. A mob, consisting of several dozen persons, pelted stones on Dalits, injuring some of them, including cops.

Ninety Dalit families face discrimination in distribution of drinking water, alleges Gujarat Dalit rights NGO

By Our Representative
With summer at its height, and increasing number of villages facing water shortage in Gujarat, facts have come to light which suggest that backward communities, particularly the Dalits, have once again begun to face the brunt of the shortage. In a letter written to Gujarat chief minister Anandiben Patel, Kirit Rathod, programme director, Navsarjan Trust, a Dalit rights NGO, operating from Ahmedabad, has said that in village Samosar, tuluka Muli, district Surendranagar, 90 families of the Dalit community “face extreme discrimination” at the hands of dominant caste persons, controlling village local body, in the distribution of drinking water.

Terms of reference of Modi govt's SIT on black money has "ignored" crucial directions by Supreme Court

By Our Representative
Terms of reference (ToR) for the new special investigation team (SIT) on black money, set by the Narendra Modi government, is learnt to have missed two crucial directions given by the Supreme Court in July 2011. The Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI), in a statement, has said that on page 66 of its judgement, the apex court had ordered that the SIT “must take over the investigation of individuals with bank accounts in Liechtenstein, as disclosed by Germany to India and expeditiously conduct the same”. At the same time, it had added, "The SIT should review concluded matters to assess whether investigations have been thoroughly and properly conducted, if they conclude is there a scope for further investigation”.

Top IIM-A professor opposes plea to privatize govt banks, meant to bring them off right to information purview

By Our Representative
Close on the heels of a high-level Reserve Bank of India (RBI) committee wanting the public sector banks (PSBs) to be removed from under the purview of the Right to Information (RTI) Act by privatizing them, a top professor of the Indian Institute of Management-Ahmedabad (IIM-A) TT Mohan Ram has opposed the view that the state should distance itself from banking boards in order to privatize banks, which would bring them out of the RTI. According to Prof Ram, the “solution” found by the RBI committee, headed by PJ Nayak, ex-CEO Axis Bank, is, the government should “let its stakes in PSBs fall below 50 per cent” by allowing “government shareholding” to be “transferred to a Bank Investment Company (BIC)”, which is unacceptable.