Skip to main content

India's public spending on education less than 3% of GDP, Kothari Commission wanted it to be 6%

By Our Representative
A recent Right to Education (RTE) Forum consultation in Delhi has revealed that the Government of India’s and state governments’ allocation for education is not even half of what well-known the Kothari Commission had recommended way back in 1964. The commission wanted it to be 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), an amount endorsed by the National Policy on Education more than two decades later (1986).
A paper presented at the seminar, jointly prepared by the Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability (CBGA) and CRY for the RTE Forum, says, “After the implementation of RTE in 2010, the school education expenditure has increased just by 0.2% (from 2.5% percent of GDP in 2009-10 to 2.7% of GDP in 2015-16).”
It notes, however, “In this total education spending, state contributes 2.9 percent of GDP and rest one-fourth of the expenditure is financed by Union Government. The overall allocation for education could be lesser for 2017-18 as the share of Union Government has decreased from 0.8 percent in 2013-14 to 0.47 percent of GDP in 2017-18.”
The paper, authored by Prof Protiva Kundu, says that per student spending is on education is Rs 13,974 per year, with wide variations across states. Thus, the highest spending is of Goa with Rs 67,041, and the lowest is of Uttar Pradesh Rs 7,613, said Prof Kundu, adding, the Kendriya Vidyalayas, which are considered as ‘model’ schools financed by the Union Government, spent around Rs. 32,263 per child, and should be considered as benchmark.
The paper further says that the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), which is supposed to be the main vehicle for implementing RTE after the Act came into force in 2010, was not being supported by adequate resources.
“It was expected that there will be a big-push of resources for SSA to meet the target of universalization of elementary education. Conversely, SSA is severely under-funded”, Prof Kundu regrets in the paper.
Prof Krishna Kumar
She adds, “In the financial year, 2016-17, against an approval of Rs. 46,702 crore, the Ministry of Finance had allocated only Rs. 22,500 crore to the Ministry of Human Resource Development as central share for SSA.”
Taking part at the consultation, well-known educationist and former NCERT director Prof Krishna Kumar said that the Government of India shouldn’t overlook “demands and intentions” of earlier policies while formulating the New Education Policy, warning, “A country like India, which so diverse, a centralized education policy will not serve the larger purposes. Policies should be framed by taking local and regional needs in account.”
Former foreign secretary Muchkund Dubey told the consultation that those who frame policies and allocate funds in the field of education “should bear the responsibility of proper implementation of policies and utilisation of funds”, giving the example of how this is done in Brazil, Argentina, and Indonesia, adding, “India is the only country which is paying less attention on right to education despite it being a fundamental right.”
Prof Kundu told the consultation – in which Prof Poonam Batra and Prof Anita Rampal of Delhi University, and Prof Vinay Kanth of Patna University among others participated – that “a recent CAG audit report shows that the SSA budget for 2014-15 had been reduced by Rs 5256 crore, against the budgeted provision of Rs 27,575 crore, due to lower collection of education cess.”
She added, “With the implementation of goods and services tax (GST), how the education cess will be used is not very clear yet. Till now as per the GST council, the government will continue to levy education cess on imported goods and the closing balance of education cess will not be carried forward in GST, as it is not covered by definition of ‘eligible duties and taxes’ under CGST Act.”

Comments

Brandon Stevan said…
After 2015 the condition of the education system has been improved. Nice article, I would like to share it with https://typicalstudent.org/ team.
Emma Jasmine said…
This is must to every nation that, they have to spend a large part of budget on education, if the children will get the right education then the country will automatically grow.
rahulkavin said…
It is important that we serve our rural children with a nutritious breakfast before enlightening their minds with academic as well as human values education.

madhusudan naidu

madhusudan naidu muddenahalli
Healthinfo said…
But how it is going to happen ? Because the government has limited funds and their main focus is on infrastructure development.

rainbow kondapur doctors

TRENDING

Arrest of Fr Stan Swamy: UN makes public letter seeking explanation from Govt of India

Counterview Desk In a letter to the Government of India (GoI), three senior United Nations (UN) officials – Elina Steinerte, vice-chair of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention; Mary Lawlor, special rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders; and Fernand de Varennes, special rapporteur on minority issues – have said that the arrest of veteran activist Father Stan Swamy in October 2020 marks “the escalation of harassment the human rights defender has been subjected to since 2018.”

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

Farm laws 'precursor' to free trade deal envisaged by US corporates to allow GMO

By Rajiv Shah Did the Government of India come up with the three farm laws, first rushed by promulgating ordinances in June 2020, to not just open the country’s agricultural sector to the corporate sector but also as a precursor to comply with the requirements of the United States for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA), as envisaged by the outgoing US president Donald Trump?

Modi govt 'implementing' IMF-envisaged corporate takeover of Indian agriculture

By Bhabani Shankar Nayak* The surge of wealth of Indian billionaires and the Modi-led BJP government’s onslaught on poor, marginalised and farmers continue to grow simultaneously as masses face annihilating pandemic of coronavirus. There is 90 % rise of Indian billionaire’s wealth over last one decade. It is not accidental.

Differing from Ambedkar, Kancha Ilaiah holds a 'different' theory of caste system

By Banavath Aravind* I was introduced to Kancha Ilaiah’s work when I was about 20 years old. He was then in the midst of a controversy for a chapter in his book "Post-Hindu India: A Discourse in Dalit-Bahujan, Socio-Spiritual and Scientific Revolution", which termed the Baniya community as social smugglers. During many of his debates, I had come to notice his undeterred fighting spirit in trying to bring up certain fundamental social issues that were hitherto undiscussed. I eventually came across some of his works and started reading them silently. I’m deliberately stressing upon the word ‘silently’ here, as this was the kind of silence particularly associated with sensitive social issues like caste, religion, etc. But, as I write this essay, I feel silences on sensitive issues should be broken. Ilaiah opened up an entirely new debate that had the vigour and strength to counter the systemic Brahmanism. His methods of research were also novel in terms of going back to the roo

New trend? Riots 'expanded' to new rural areas post-2002 Gujarat carnage: Report

A VHP poster declaring a Gujarat village part of Hindu Rashtra  By Rajiv Shah  Buniyaad, a Gujarat-based civil society organization, engaged in monitoring of communal violence in the state, in a new report, “Peaceful Gujarat: An Illusion or Truth?” has said that a “new trend” has come about in communal violence in the state, where the parts of Gujarat which didn't see communal riots in 2002 are experiencing “regular bouts” of communal violence.

A new fad in India, coding-for-toddlers culture needs to be 'nipped' in the bud

By Aditya Pandey* We are all aware of the dire consequences of subjecting young kids to intense academic pressure from an early age. In India, we have coaching institutes like FIITJEE and Resonance offering programmes for 6th standard kids to prepare them for “NTSE, IJSO, PRMO and other Olympiads”. The duration of these programmes is around 175 hours – hours that could've been spent playing games and making friends instead.

Savarkar 'criminally betrayed' Netaji and his INA by siding with the British rulers

By Shamsul Islam* RSS-BJP rulers of India have been trying to show off as great fans of Netaji. But Indians must know what role ideological parents of today's RSS/BJP played against Netaji and Indian National Army (INA). The Hindu Mahasabha and RSS which always had prominent lawyers on their rolls made no attempt to defend the INA accused at Red Fort trials.

More than 5,200 Gujarat schools to be closed down, merged, says govt document

RTE Forum, Gujarat, releasing fact-sheet on education By Our Representative A Gujarat government document has revealed that it is planning to close down 5,223 schools in the name of school merger. The document, dated July 20, 201 was released by the Right to Education (RTE) Forum, Gujarat. It shows that the worst-affected districts because of this merger are those which are populated by marginalized communities – especially tribals, Dalits and minorities, said RTE Forum’s Gujarat convener Mujahid Nafees.

Consumption pattern, not economic shock behind 'poor' child health indicators

By Neeraj Kumar, Arup Mitra* The findings of the latest round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) conducted in 2019-20 covering 22 States/UTs under Phase-I  present a somewhat disappointing picture of children’s health in India. Majority of the experts, based on prima facie evidence, just highlighted the deteriorating sign of child health in terms of increase in proportion of stunted and underweight children in most of the phase-I states/UTs over last two rounds of NFHS (2015-16 to 2019-20).