Skip to main content

Fourth industrial revolution? Female labour force down from 37% in 2005 to 26% in 2018

Counterview Desk
Discussing the paradox around the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) as an enabler of gender equality or an accelerator of gendered disparities, a new report, "Opportunity or Challenge? Empowering Women and Girls in India for the Fourth Industrial Revolution", says that, in India, a decadal analysis of employment data reveals a declining trend of Female Labour Force Participation (FLFP).
Prepared by the Global Compact Network India (GCNI), a non-profit society that functions as the Indian Local Network of the UN Global Compact (UNGC), New York, and top international consultants, Deloitte, the report says that challenges for women and girls emerge from lack of education, access to quality education and a digital divide.
Insisting that these challenges limit girls and women from gaining employable skill sets, entering the workforce, or establishing an enterprise, the report says, "A set of underlying social, economic, and political barriers limit opportunities for women". It adds, "Women’s participation in the Indian workforce is one of the lowest in the world."

Excerpts:

In India context, the female labour force participation has had a decadal fall from 36.7% in 2005 to 26% in 2018, with 95% (195 million) women being employed in the unorganised sector or engaging in unpaid work.
The emergence of 4IR provides invested stakeholders an opportunity to reset the gender agenda, changing it from what it was in the past three revolutions which seem to have widened gender disparities and gender stereotypes. However, the launch of new technologies, digitisation, and automation raises a concern that women employed in low-skilled and low-paying jobs may lose their place in the workforce.
Jobs in the manufacturing and construction sectors may be replaced by automation and most of the new jobs created between now and 2022 will have a technology aspect to them. A report by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) anticipates that Asian nations can lose more than 80% of their jobs in the garment, textile, and apparel manufacturing sectors to automation. This can result in 9 million young girls losing their jobs.
The developmental challenges faced across Asia are similar — girls are dropping out of the school system, fewer girls are making the transition from education to employment, and they are five times less likely to take up a career involving technology or those linked to information and communications technology.
The government through the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has expressed a deep commitment towards improving female labour force participation. However, significant challenges persist, with gaps in formal education in terms of learning levels, drop-outs, and quality of education.
Current Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) has been documented to be 54% and only 5% Indians can be considered formally skilled. Of 131 countries, India currently holds the 120th position in terms of LFPR.
Despite constituting 48% of the population, women and girls lack education and access to skill building and employment opportunities, resulting in to a fall in female employment rates from 35% of the workforce in 2005 to 28% in 2018. Female LFPR is currently 50% lower than male LFPR in India, with 95% women (195 million) employed in the informal sector.
Gendered disparity triangulated through economic, social, and cultural barriers has resulted in poor education levels and employability of women and girls. This inequality increases with the emergence of the 4IR, with lower proportions of women demonstrating an understanding of digital technologies, automation, internet of things, and big data. At present, only 34% women in India have access to mobile technology.
A report by the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) captures the perceptions and extent of preparedness of 14−18 year olds to enter the workforce in rural India. About 60% of the youth who want to pursue higher education could not read a grade two text; only 43% of them could solve a simple division problem; and an entire cohort of youth had limited foundational reading and math abilities. In addition, 76% females had never used the Internet.
In 2015, the Government of India developed the National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship to serve underprivileged communities and create a pool of globally competitive skilled workforce.
Against this backdrop, the government conceptualised the National Skills Strengthening for Industrial Value Enhancement (STRIVE) programme to enhance the quality of training and improve the market image of vocational training provided at Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and through apprenticeships.
Despite a 30% reservation for female students across ITIs, female enrolment is extremely low. The female-to-male ratio across ITIs is 1:10. Of 36 states/union territories, only eight states currently refect a 30% or higher participation of women. Additionally, six states accounting for 32% of the total ITI enrolment have recorded below 5% female enrolment.
Due to this challenge, ITIs that are solely for women have started enrolling male candidates to sustain themselves. Further, only 4% of the apprentices are women, leading to low participation of women (31%) in the overall labour force.
Entrepreneurship is considered as one of the key drivers of 4IR. The sixth Economic Census (2011) indicated that women constituted only 14% of the 58.5 million entrepreneurs in the country. The challenges faced by rural entrepreneurs include social barriers, limited access to a range of resources and knowledge, and low social mobility.
The current demography of India with about 28.1% population in the age group of 0-14 holds a great growth opportunity for the education sector.
However, female enrolment statistics paint a dismal picture. Based on a recent research paper by the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), 39.4% of the adolescent girls in the age group of 15−18 were not attending any educational institution.
The numbers decline further in terms of women entering the workforce.
The total Indian workforce had only 23.3% of the women in 2017−18. A large number of these working women face challenges in continuing with their jobs when family life takes precedence. Such career breaks make it difficult for women to return to the workforce.
Rigid social norms, archaic gender roles that ascribe the burden of domestic care on women, lacuna of information about opportunities, safety concerns, and lack of effective skill development avenues contribute to the poor presence of women (especially the underprivileged) in workforce.
Private sector too suffers from a severe shortage of appropriately skilled candidates. Despite a big push towards the development of the Indian skilling ecosystem by the government of India in the past few years, the unorganised sector remains unskilled.
---
Click HERE to download

Comments

anvianu said…
Hello! Someone in my Facebook group shared this website with us, so I came to give it a look. I’m enjoying the information. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Wonderful blog and amazing design and style.
safety course in chennai
nebosh course in chennai

TRENDING

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

How lead petitioner was rendered homeless when GM mustard matter came up in SC

By Rosamma Thomas*  On January 5, 2023, the Supreme Court stayed a December 20, 2022 direction of the Uttarakhand High Court to the Indian Railways and the district administration of Haldwani to use paramilitary forces to evict thousands of poor families occupying land that belonged to the railways.  Justice AS Oka remarked that it was not right to order the bringing in of paramilitary forces. The SC held that even those who had no rights, but were living there for years, needed to be rehabilitated. On December 21, 2022, just as she was getting ready to celebrate Christmas, researcher Aruna Rodrigues was abruptly evicted from her home in Mhow Cantonment, Madhya Pradesh – no eviction notice was served, and nearly 30 Indian Army soldiers bearing arms were part of the eviction process. What is noteworthy in this case is that the records establishing possession of the house date back to 1892 – the title deed with the name of Dr VP Cardoza, Rodrigues’ great grandfather, is dated November 14

Buddhist shrines were 'massively destroyed' by Brahmanical rulers: Historian DN Jha

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

Savarkar 'criminally betrayed' Netaji and his INA by siding with the British rulers

By Shamsul Islam* RSS-BJP rulers of India have been trying to show off as great fans of Netaji. But Indians must know what role ideological parents of today's RSS/BJP played against Netaji and Indian National Army (INA). The Hindu Mahasabha and RSS which always had prominent lawyers on their rolls made no attempt to defend the INA accused at Red Fort trials.

Tax buoyancy claims when less than 4% Indian dollar millionaires pay income tax

By Prasanna Mohanty  In FY18, the last year for which disaggregated income tax data is available, only 29,002 ITRs declared income above Rs 5 crore, while Credit Suisse said India had 7.25 lakh dollar millionaires (the wealth equivalent of Rs 8 crore and above) that year. Often enough, the Centre claims that demonetization in 2016 raised tax collections, improved tax efficiency, and expanded the tax base. Now RBI Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) member Ashima Goyal has also joined their ranks, attributing the “claims” of rising tax collections in the current fiscal year to “tax buoyancy” brought by the demonetisation . Do such claims have any basis in official records? The answer is unequivocal. The budget documents show the tax-to-GDP ratio (direct plus indirect tax) increased from 10.6% in FY16 (pre-demonetization) to 11.2% in FY17, remained there in FY18 (demonetization and GST fiscals), and then fell to 9.9% in FY20. In FY22, it improved to 10.8% and is estimated to drop to 10.7% in

Cyrus Mistry, PM Modi’s brother: What do these accidents have in common? Merc!

By Rosamma Thomas*  In September 2022, in an accident at Palghar near Mumbai, Cyrus Mistry, former chairman of the Tata Group, died in a road accident . On December 28, 2022, a road accident in Mysore left one of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s brothers injured. What is common in these accidents? The car that crashed into the divider on the road, in both these cases, was manufactured by “prestigious” German manufacturer Mercedes Benz. One former dealer of Mercedes Benz cars in India has been raising issues of the threat to the lives of those riding these cars for many years now. Cama Motors, among the oldest dealers of foreign cars, having started business in pre-independence India, noted over 10 years ago that Mercedes Benz was indulging in corrupt practices . The cars are currently priced between Rs 41 lakh and Rs 2.92 crore in India; few people realize that the pride of owning a Merc comes at considerable risk to life. Cama Motors carefully documented several of the flaws on a websi

Gandhian unease at Mahadev Desai book launch: Sabarmati Ashram may lose free space

By Rajiv Shah  A simmering apprehension has gripped the Gandhians who continue to be trustees of the Sabarmati Ashram: the “limited freedom” to express one’s views under the Modi dispensation still available at the place which Mahatma Gandhi made his home from 1917 to 1930 may soon be taken away. Also known as Harijan Ashram, a meeting held for introducing yet-to-be-released book, “Mahadev Desai: Mahatma Gandhi's Frontline Reporter”, saw speaker and after speaker point towards “narrowing space” in Gujarat for Gandhians (as also others) to express themselves. Penned by veteran journalist Nachiketa Desai, grandson of Mahadev Desai, while the book was planned to be released on January 1 and the meeting saw several prominent personalities, including actor-director Nandita Das, her scholar-mother Varsha Das, British House of Lords member Bhikhu Parekh, among others, speak glowingly about the effort put in for bringing out the book, exchanges between speakers suggested it should be rele

Civil rights leaders allege corporate loot of resources, suppression of democratic rights

By Our Representative  Civil rights activists have alleged, quoting top intelligence officers as also multiple international forensic reports, that recent developments with regard to the Bhima Koregaon and the Citizenship Amendment Act-National Register of Citizens (CAA-NRC) cases suggest, there was "no connection between the Elgaar Parishad event and the Bhima Koregaon violence." Activists of the Campaign Against State Repression (CASR) told a media event at the HKS Surjeet Bhawan, New Delhi, that, despite this, several political prisoners continue to be behind bars on being accused under the anti-terror the draconian Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. Addressed by family members of the political prisoners, academics, as well as social activists, it was highlighted how cases were sought to be fabricated against progressive individuals, democratic activists and intellectuals, who spoke out against "corporate loot of Indian resources, suppression of basic democratic

Kerala natural rubber producers 'squeezed', attend to their plight: Govt of India told

By Rosamma Thomas   Babu Joseph, general secretary of the National Federation of Rubber Producers Societies (NFRPS) at a recent discussion at Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, explained that it is high time the Union government paid greater heed to the troubles plaguing the rubber production sector in India – rubber is a strategic product, important for the military establishment and for industry, since natural rubber is still used in the manufacture of tyres for large vehicles and aeroplanes. Synthetic rubber is now quite widespread, but styrene, which is used in making synthetic rubber and plastics, and also butadiene, another major constituent of synthetic rubber, are both hazardous. Prolonged exposure to these even in recycled rubber can cause neurological damage. Kerala produces the bulk of India’s natural rubber. In 2019-20, Kerala’s share in the national production of rubber was over 74%. Over 20% of the gross cropped area in the state is under rubber cultivation, with total

How local NGO is using art, songs to teach children revive Sundarbans mangroves

By Sara Ahmed*  Located in the low-lying islands in the Bay of Bengal, the Sundarbans straddle the border between India and Bangladesh and cover more than 1 million hectares, making them the world’s largest single contiguous mangrove swamp . A Ramsar site added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1987, they are home to a wide range of critically endangered fauna, including the Bengal tiger, the Ganges dolphin , river terrapin, the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python, along with approximately 428 species of birds , 120 fish, 42 mammal, 35 reptile and 8 amphibian species. Having adapted to the saline estuarine conditions, more than 60 plant species can be found there. Historically, cyclones have posed a greater threat in the Bay of Bengal than they do in the Arabian sea, to India’s west. Between 1891 and 2018, there were 520 cyclones in the Bay of Bengal , compared to 126 in the Arabian Sea. On top of sucking up large amounts of greenhouse emissions , mangroves also act as the f