Skip to main content

Human development index: India performs worse than G-20 developing countries

By Rajiv Shah

A new book, “Sustainable Development in India: A Comparison with the G-20”, authored by Dr Keshab Chandra Mandal, has regretted that though India’s GDP has doubled over the last one decade, its human development indicators are worse than not just developed countries of the Group of 20 countries but also developing countries who its members.
The G-20 – consisting of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union – represent roughly 85% of global GDP and two-thirds of the world’s population. Collectively G-20 holds 80% of the world trade and approximately half of the world land area.
The book, published against the backdrop of India scheduled to host the 17th annual G-20 summit in 2022, which will mark India’s 75th anniversary of independence, says that “there is not a single country in the G-20 that has so poorly performed in Human Development Index (HDI).” Founded in 1999 to discuss policy pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability, ever since the November 2011 Cannes summit, all G-20 summits have been held annually.
Extracting country-wise data of each of the G-20 members from the “Human Development Report”, the book says, the HDI comparison shows, on a scale of 1, developed countries perform pretty well, with Australia’s score being 0.939, followed by Germany 0.936, Canada 0.926, and Italy 0.880. But even Saudi Arabia (0.853), Argentina (0.825), Mexico 0.774, Russia (0.816), Turkey 0.791, and South Africa 0.699 perform better than India, whose score is just 0.640.
Stating that the position of a country in the HDI depends on some indicators such as “life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate and political participation of women”, the book says, in people’s life expectancy, not only developed countries perform much better – with Australia’s being 83 years, Canada’s 82 years, France’s 83 years, Germany’s 81 years, Italy’s 83.2 years, Japan’s 84 years, Republic of Korea’s 82 years, UK’s 81.7 years and US’ 79.5 years.
Even developed countries (with the sole exception of South Africa 63 years) perform much better than India, whose life expectancy is a little less than 69 years, just about the same as Indonesia’s (a little more than 69 years). The figures for other developing G-20 countries are – Turkey 64 years, Argentina 76.7 years, Brazil 76 years, China 76 years, Mexico 77 years, Russia 71 years and Saudi Arabia 75 years.
“In terms of Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), India is again the worst performer with 174 deaths per 100,000 live births”, the author, Dr Mandal, states. Thus, developed countries perform very well – Italy (4), Japan (5), Australia (6), Germany (6), Canada (7) and UK (9), Republic of Korea (11), US (14). However, India is placed worse than South Africa’s MMR of 138 and Indonesia’s 126. Interestingly, it is 12 in Saudi Arabia, 16 in Turkey, 25 in Russia, 38 in Mexico, 44 in Brazil and 27 in China.

Further pointing out that “India’s literacy rate is the lowest (74.0%) and it is much lower in comparison with other G-20 countries”, and is even worse than not just Russia, which achieved 100% literacy in 2010, and Argentina (98.0%), Australia (99.0%), Canada (99.0%), France (99.0%), Germany (99.0%), Italy (99.0%), Republic of Korea (98.0%) and UK (99.0%). it is worse than developing – Brazil (90.0%), China (93.0%), Indonesia (91.0%), Saudi Arabia (91.0%), Mexico (92.0%), and South Africa (92.0%).
Dr Mandal states, “When we examine the gross enrolment ratio, it indicates again a frustrating trend in India. Though the pre-primary and primary level students’ enrolment ratio is encouraging, the enrolment ratio in secondary level in India is the lowest among all the G-20 countries.” Thus, in India, only 75% population is in the category of secondary school age, which is worse not not just all the developed countries, but also Argentina, Brazil, China, , Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and Mexico. 
Wondering “why is the bad shape of education in India”, the author of the book says, “The answer can be found in the government expenditure in the education sector. India’s budgetary allocation is negligible in comparison with most of the G-20 countries. India spends only 3.8% of GDP in education sector, whereas most of the other countries spend more than India.”  
“For example”, the author says, “Argentina spends 5.9%, Brazil and South Africa spend 5.9% of their GDP respectively, while France (5.5%), the UK (5.6%), Korea (5.1%), the USA (5.0%), Germany (4.9%), Italy (4.1%) and Turkey (4.4%) spend more share of GDP in the education sector. However, it regrets, data of Saudi Arabia, China and Canada are “not available”. 
Even as pointing out that G-20 countries “have failed to provide equal opportunity to women at par with their male counterparts”, the book states, “It is observed that Mexico (41.4%) has the highest percentage of women in the national Parliament, while South Africa is a bit lower with (40.0%) women in Parliament and it is followed by Argentina (38.9%).”
“Further”, it says, “France (35.4%), Australia (32.7%), Germany (31.5%) and Canada (30.1%) have more than 30% women in their Parliament, and countries like the UK (28.5%), China (24.2%), Saudi Arabia (19.9%), Indonesia (19.8%), the USA (19.7%), Russia (16.1%) and Korea (17.0%) have lower representation of women than their counterparts in France, Australia, Germany and Canada.”
Coming to India, the book says, “The position of India (11.6%) is the lowest in comparison with the other G-20 countries… even lower than Japan (13.7%), and Turkey (14.6%), while only Brazil (11.3%), despite the fact that India has sought to empower women “through participation in the highest law making body.”
As for the gender gap in labour force participation, the Dr Mandal says, while the global men’s labour force participation rate is 75.3%, this rate for women is only 48.7%, which suggests “a clear gap of 26.6% is visible”, and all G-20 countries suffer from a high gap. However, he regrets, the highest difference “is found in India” where the “total labour participation of men is 78.8%, while women’s participation rate is only 27.2% thereby making a difference of 51.6%.”
As against this, the gender gap in labour rate participation is much lower in developed countries of G-20 – Turkey 39.5%, Mexico 34.9%, Indonesia 31.1%, Republic of Korea 21.0%, and Brazil 21.5%. “In Canada this gap is only 9.1%, in France this gap is 9.5%, in the UK it is 11.3%, while in Australia and USA this gap is 11.3 and 12.6% respectively”, the book states.

Comments

When we do not allot funds for education and health but instead reduce the amount with each budget what else can you expect?

TRENDING

Buddhist shrines were 'massively destroyed' by Brahmanical rulers: Historian DN Jha

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

World Bank proved right, Narmada is already a destructive project: Medha Patkar

By Rajiv Shah  Narmada Bachao Andolan leader Medha Patkar has said that the World Bank’s independent review mission, which brought out the Morse Commission report , has been proved right: The Sardar Sarovar dam has not only failed to live up to the loud promises made for irrigating large arid areas of Saurashtra and Kutch in Gujarat, those who were displaced and resettled in Gujarat are getting increasingly restive as many of them are unable to get the promised water for irrigation and some for drinking water too. While 50,000 families have been resettled in three states and 20,000 have received land rights as land or cash, the authorities have not calculated what should be done with 15,000 families, whose houses are acquired for Sardar Sarovar but following changing backwater levels of the Sardar Sarovar dam, they are denied rehabilitation, Patkar tells Counterview in an interview (part1*): *** Q: What is the latest position in your view as far as the Sardar Sarovar dam is concerned?

Upholding labour rights, Nehruvian scientific temper, Rajni Patel opposed Emergency

By Harsh Thakor*  Rajni Patel, who died 40 years ago, whatever his flaws, had one great quality: his human touch to offer selfless service and ability to galvanise or influence human beings from all walks of life. Few people would ever go out of the way to help someone or serve as selflessly without aim of personal gain. Rajni championed Nehruvian secular ideas and scientific temper. As a master in public relations he revealed utmost humility. As a barrister, he never appeared against the trade unions or workers. A Fabien Socialist he opposed liberal capitalism and radical socialism. Unlike most lawyers, he did not succumb to the lure of amassing wealth. Rajni was born in Sirsa, in Gujarat, on the very day Gandhi set foot on Indian soil, on 9th January, 1915. He gained his baptism through one of Gandhi's speeches calling for the boycott of foreign goods, which was the virtual turning point of his life. Rajni toed Gandhi to organise boycott of foreign goods. Rajni was able to cros

Vadodara violence: Fine Arts Faculty alumni raise fingers at Varsity's political appointee

Hasmukh Vaghela with PM Counterview Desk  In a statement, alumni of the Faculty of Fine Arts (FoFA), Maharaja Sayajirao University (MSU), Baroda, Gujarat, referring to the “violence” by right-wing groups for displaying “objectionable” paintings that “hurt religious sentiments” at the one of India’s top fine arts institute May 5, have taken strong exception to “the assault and rustication” of one of the students, and lack of action taken against those who “violated” the institution and committed the act. Floated as an online petition seeking wider support, the FoFA alumni, in their statement, addressed to the vice chancellor, MSU, said, there should be “thorough” investigation in the whole incident and “immediate action” should be taken against syndicate member Hasmukh Vaghela, MSU, who sparked the assault, and “other co-conspirators” for breaching “university code of conduct and unlawful activities committed in broad daylight”. While the alumni statement doesn't say so, Vaghela

Targeting mosques, churches: 'Roadmap' for 2025, RSS' centenary year?

416 years old Our Lady of Health Church, Sancoale, Goa  By Fr Cedric Prakash SJ*  Fascists use manipulative strategies aimed at whipping up sympathy and support from the majority community, to which they normally ‘belong’. They do so in a variety of insidious and subtle ways. In the past few months, they have gone overboard in their efforts to denigrate and demonize minorities in India, particularly Muslims and Christians. They have spewed hate and divisiveness through their venomous speeches; incited people to violence and have effectively used officialdom to further their vested interests. The results are there for all to see: greater polarisation of the majority community in a country which prided itself for its pluralism and diversity. Their meticulously planned agenda is in order to gain absolute power of the country in the 2024 national elections. More so it is also a roadmap towards 2025 when the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) will complete one hundred years of its existence.

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

UK leader cites Indian farmers' struggle one of top global fights against neoliberal order

Counterview Desk  Jeremy Corbyn, member of the UK Parliament, former leader of the UK Labour Party and founder of the  Peace and Justice Project , in his  inaugural speech to the  Progressive International’s  Summit at the End of the World on May 12, 2022, has said, what is happening across globe suggests that "image of apocalypse -- bombs and raids, oil spills and wildfires, disease and contagion -- is a reality for people across the planet." In an adaptation of his speech, distributed by  Globetrotter , Corbyn, however, said, there are fresh examples action, too -- by Indian farmers forcing Prime Minister Narendra Modi to withdraw three neo-liberal laws;  by workers, communities and activists against the top giant multinational Amazon's "greed and exploitation"; and by Latin American people's struggle to say "no more to the domination by imperialism, the destruction of their communities and the abuse of their environments." Stating that this is n

Why is NIOH-ICMR 'official' making false claims on silicosis?: Health rights NGO

Counterview Desk In a letter to the Director General, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, Dr Jagdish Parikh, trustee, health rights NGO People’s Training and Research Centre (PTRC), Vadodara, and Jagdish Patel, director, PTRC, have said that the claim being made for the use of biomarker for detection of silicosis raises concern about scientific tenacity of the diagnosis of the deadly occupational disease. The letter also objects to the reported claim by a top health official that it is possible to detect silicosis at the sub-radiological stage. It asks, “What is this subradiological stage of silicosis? We have not heard any such scientific term being used. Again, the report is using a term which is not found in any scientific literature so far. Is this term acceptable by ICMR? Is ICMR thinking of any explanation?” Text : This is with reference to our letter dated November 28, 2021. In our communication we had raised our concern about the scientific tena

Welfare? Govt of India spends just 19% of manual scavengers' rehabilitation budget

By Bharat Dogra*  While the Dalit community has been always known for higher levels of poverty as well as social discrimination, even within the Dalits there is a sub-section known for even worse levels of poverty as well as social discrimination. This is the section which was traditionally involved in manual scavenging. The shocking injustice they have suffered from over the years has been widely recognized leading to a ban on manual scavenging. At the same time there is urgent need for the rehabilitation of those engaged in manual scavenging. Hence a self-employment scheme for the rehabilitation of those engaged in manual scavenging was drawn up. The allocations and the expenditure for this scheme for the last eight years are shown in the Table below: Union Budget for Self-Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of  Manual Scavengers (in Rs crore) By Budget Estimate we mean the original allocation made when the budget is presented. It is clear from this table that the actual expenditure

Dalit Hindi professor intimidated, harassed by saffron brigade: 400 activists, academics

Counterview Desk  Over 400 academics and activists have expressed alarm at the Lucknow University ‘protests’ on May 10 against Dr Ravi Kant, associate professor of Hindi and a Dalit, stating it is nothing but “intimidation and abuse” over his remarks on the online channel Satya Hindi, which were taken out of context and made viral on social media. “We are even more concerned that such an incident should occur within the confines a university campus, where free speech and expression without fear must ideally be the norm. Violence and intimidation over differences of opinion should never occur in a university”, the statement regrets, asking the authorities at the university and the Uttar Pradesh government to assure him and his family “protection from further harassment or intimidation.” Text: We are a group of academics and activists deeply concerned by the public heckling and intimidation of Dr. Ravi Kant, Associate Professor of Hindi and well known Dalit scholar, on the premises of t