Skip to main content

Revocation, 'misinterpretation' of Article 370 led to lot of turmoil in Beijing: Webinar told

By Our Representative
Making a major intervention at a webinar organized by Impact and Policy Research Institute (IMPRI), New Delhi, Ambassador Nirupama Rao, former Foreign Secretary of India, who has served as Indian Ambassador to China, the US and Sri Lanka, has said that China has used India’s infrastructure development and excuse of India violating the border commitments along the borders as an interpretation to stir up tensions, though they themselves have engaged in expansion of their own infrastructure along the borders.
According to her, the Galwan situation has not been witnessed on Line of Actual control for 45 years before June 15. Since 1993, we have been using terms such as mutual and equal security, peace along the borders but these principles have been violated by China recently.
She belived, in 1996, Article 10 of the Agreement of Confidence Building Measures posed by China talking about speeding up the clarification and confirmation on the Line of Actual Control still remains unclarified from China as was evident by the meeting that took place in 2003 to decide the line of actual control between China and India, China jinxed up the meet and deliberations never come to fruition.
Rao asserted, India-China is one is the longest land border in the world that remains unsettled till date. The attitude of the Chinese towards border disputes has always displayed negligence. They have a bloated sense of self that China has, is hurting the interests of India and India needs resistance to the advances made by China. She underscored that a war with China is not the solution but internal and external peace is to be maintained.
She insisted, Ladakh comes is under the close vicinity of the areas under the activities of China. The wrong interpretation of revocation of Article 370 by the Government of India has led them to create ruckus on the borders. China has improved relations with Pakistan as its ‘iron brother’ and converged their interests in targeting India.
Rao suggested that India should continue to stand up to China as was evident by the Doklam incident in 2017. Mutual adjustments and mutual negotiations would definitely improve the situation on the border, but it might remain a dream during Xi Jinping’s rule, as China is unrelenting and does not play by any rule. This certainly remains a cause of worry for India.
The webinar was organised in collaboration with the Sigur Center for Asian Studies, The George Washington University, Washington, DC. 
Taking part in the webinar, Dr Kyle Gardner, a top scholar attached with the Sigur Centre for Asian Studies, explained the historical context of Sino-India borders and highlighted two important points- missing borders and the complications brought by the claims of the other states. He believed that Sino-India border is not the mutually agreed demarcated line which caused the tragic violence on June 15 in Galwan Valley of Ladakh.
Dr Gardner pointed to how the Britishers spent an entire century in Indian subcontinent developing mapping principles and building roads due to the fear of Russian encroachment. They tried to insulate India from Russia and Ladakh being at crossroads lacked front role while mapping. They used limits of watersheds to map Ladakh but the process was tedious thus, historically Ladakh never had defined borders.
In future, China may possibly be present in all the problems India may have with its neighbours which may not in line with Indian interests
According to him, the need for a borderline emerged when encroaching empires started demanding maps. These phenomena of historically missing borders continue till date and gave rise to second problem of continuity of claims by prior states over the territory of Ladakh. He also pointed out that India has carried the British legacy with itself as evident from the practices of road making, restrictive access to borders and surveying.
Dr. Deep Pal, a senior scholar with the National Bureau of Asian Research, USA, said that President of China has a couple of centenary goals to deliver to the people of China to realise the Chinese Dream. The first centenary envisages that the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as emerging as a prosperous democratic society by 2021 and also the 100th anniversary of Chinese Communist Party.
He said, by 2049, they are determined to be strong democratic, civilised, harmonious and modern socialist country under the leadership of Xi Jinping. He highlighted due to pandemic, China is being cornered by large number of countries making the achievement of China dream questionable. China wanted to be the unquestionable leader in the current scenario. He also highlighted the strained relations between China and USA. On one hand USA has retreated from WHO and China is advancing for multilateral arrangement of Silk Road and Belt and Roads Initiative.
Dr Pal warned that China is spreading itself far across from its neighbourhoods and developing relations with Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives which enclosed the Indian subcontinent. In future incidence, it is possible that China may be present in all the problems India may have with its neighbours, which may not in line with Indian interests. After the Galwan incident, India and China relations have been changed.
He questioned the talks taking place between China and India to settle the border disputes and said India must make strong decisions. He called for policymakers to look around the world to strengthen the partnerships as evidenced by Australia in the Malabar Coast exercise. He highlighted that China had no interest in solving border issues with India and they will try to solve it in a way which works to their advantage.
Dr Anit Mukherjee, assistant professor, South Asia Programme, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, asserted that the revocation of Article 370 had created a lot of turmoil in Beijing. He opined that China wanted to create fuss on the borders to deal with its domestic turmoil going post Covid-19. He wondered whether there should a military response to the Galwan attack to restore status quo and have tit-for-tat operations.
According to him, while these could be plausible options, escalation of the conflict remains a consistent risk. The strategic and diplomatic costs must be weighed it. India must work with the countries who share apprehensions with China. India must utilise this crisis and address the system deficiencies on the borders and also speculated that India’s infrastructure development along the borders may have led China to deploy the troops on a large scale on Chinese borders. Perhaps setting up of a comprehensive Committee of Inquiry to address the nuances of the border conflict is the best way forward.
In her introductory remarks, Dr Simi Mehta, CEO, IMPRI, said that the border disputes between India and China are not new, and in the post-independent India, the two countries have fought a major war and had engaged in several skirmishes. Both countries are bound by a mutual agreement to not use firearms in the inhospitable and contested Himalayan region along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), she added.
Pointing that India received a jolt when 20 Indian personnel were killed at the hands of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at the Galwan valley, she said, no Indian soldier was killed at the hands of the PLA since 1975. As a result, the hardening of Chinese positions in the region since April this year and the causalities in the Ladakh territory of the Indian subcontinent have raised several questions on the political relations between India and China in the context of strengthened the spirit of nationalism in India.
In his concluding remarks, Dr Arjun Kumar, director of IMPRI, who is also China-India visiting scholar fellow, Ashoka University and Tongji University, wondered how could India match up to the infrastructure and economic expansion. He added, India needs to be less subtle and less hesitant in proclaiming where India’s interests lie. It can definitely afford multiple alignments to establish its rightful place in the world.

Comments

TRENDING

RSS wanted Constitution 'replaced' by Manusmriti which abused Dalits, women

By Shamsul Islam* The Constituent Assembly of India finalized the Constitution of India on November 26, 1949 which is celebrated as the Constitution Day This Constitution promised new born Indian Republic a polity based on democracy, justice, egalitarianism and rule of law. However, RSS was greatly annoyed. Four days after the historic event of approval of it, the RSS English “Organiser” in an editorial on November 30, 1949, complained:

Devoid of social security, Delhi contract sewer workers get 25-35% less wages: DASAM

By Our Representative  A civil rights group Dalit Adivasi Shakti Adhikar Manch (DASAM) survey of temporary sewer workers working under contract in many areas of Delhi has found that contractors pay wages to the sewer worker only for four months, even though their tender is for six months. Worse, the contractors deduct 25-35% from the wages before giving these to the workers.

Pending GoI wage payments to rural labour reach Rs 5,100 crore: NREGA Morcha

By Our Representative  MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), which is said to have provided a cushion to millions of rural households amidst great economic distress during the Covid-19 pandemic, continues to be bogged with poor implementation, NREGA Sangharsh Morcha has alleged.

Once centres of civilisation, Indian cities turning into 'major cause of concern'

By Soumyadip Chattopadhyay*  Each year, October 31 is celebrated as the World Cities Day. The theme this year was Adapting Cities for Climate Resilience. The Center for Habitat, Urban and Regional Studies, Impact and Policy Research Institute (IMPRI), New Delhi, organized a special lecture on city as environment as part of the discussion under the #WebPolicyTalk series on the State of Cities -- #CityConversations.

Forget 'bheek', by this logic, Gujarat was free of British rule in 1995, 19 yrs before India

The real freedom fighting brigade By Rajiv Shah  Bollywood actor Kangana Ranaut may have her own reasons to say that India acquired real freedom in May 2014, when Narendra Modi came to occupy India’s seat of power.  There was little to be amused by what she said, for, as many commentators have variously pointed out, her viewpoint was surely based on her little or no knowledge of the history of the Indian freedom movement.

Nuclear energy 'can't solve' global warming, will 'strain' financial, natural resource

Counterview Desk  Taking strong exception to Rafael Mariano Grossi, Director General, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), who has favoured nuclear energy as a solution to global warning, well-known power and policy analyst Shankar Sharma has said that the IAEA chief's “unsubstantiated advocacy” of nuclear power is associated with “diversion of considerable amounts of scarce resources, both financial as well as natural, of many developing countries, such as India.”

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

Buddhist shrines were 'massively destroyed' by Brahmanical rulers: Historian DN Jha

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

Learning to bridge 'huge chasm' between highly educated, illiterate, badly literate

By Shrey Ostwal, Sandeep Pandey*  The pivotal point of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s journey to become Mahatma Gandhi began when his “political guru” – Gopal Krishna Gokhale – advised young Mohandas to travel around India. This rigorous journey was essential for Mohandas to understand his country and countrypersons better if he were to fight the inhumane and unempathetic British regime which had been looting India of its glory for about two centuries then.

Ironic? A monk from Myanmar seeks to bring back glory of Buddhism to India

By Vidya Bhushan Rawat* Kushinagar is celebrating the life and achievements of Bhadant Gyaneshwar Mahasthivir, the Monk in Chief of Mahaparinirvan main temple. He completed his 85th birthday on November 10. Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh is one of the foremost prominent places for the Buddhists all over the world as Buddha delivered his last sermon here and met his ‘Mahaparinirvana’. Recently, Kushinagar was linked with international aviation circuit as a new airport has just been inaugurated here a couple of weeks back.