Skip to main content

When Savarkar said he had 'no quarrel' with Jinnah’s two-nation theory

Savarkar
By Shamsul Islam*
The Hindu Mahasabha under the presidentship of VD Savarkar aligned with the British masters to crush the Quit India Movement in 1942. The Responsive Cooperation with the British was not only a theoretical commitment. It soon got concretized in ganging up of the Hindu Mahasabha with the Muslim League.
When all political organizations, including the Congress, were banned, only the Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League were allowed to function. And it was during this period that the Hindu Mahasabha led by Savarkar ran coalition governments with the Muslim League. Savarkar defended this nexus in his presidential speech to the Kanpur session of the Hindu Mahasabha in the following words:
“In practical politics also the Mahasabha knows that we must advance through reasonable compromises. Witness the fact that only recently in Sind, the Sind Hindu Sabha on invitation had taken the responsibility of joining hands with the League itself in running coalition Government.
"The case of Bengal is well known. Wild Leaguers, whom even the Congress with all its submissiveness could not placate, grew quite reasonably compromising and socialable as soon as they came in contact with the HM and the Coalition government, under the premiership of Fazlul Huq and the able lead of our esteemed Mahasabha leader Dr Syama Prasad Mookerji, functioned successfully for a year or so to the benefit of both the communities.” (VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, pp 479-480.)
As explained by Savarkar in the Muslim League Bengal ministry, the second-in-command of the Mahasabha, Dr Syama Prasad Mukherjee was deputy to the Muslim League head of the ministry. Mukherjee also held portfolio of suppressing of the Quit India Movement.
The Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League, besides Bengal and Sind, ran coalition government in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) also during this period.
Savarkar joined hands with the League when the Congress opposed any dealing with the Muslim League. Dhananjay Keer in his biography of Savarkar, which is hailed as the most authentic by the Hinduvta icon's fans, admits that Savarkar had advised the Hindu leaders in the Muslim majority provinces to join ministries formed by the Muslim League.
In fact, both had been working in tandem for a couple of years. While addressing the Madura Conference of the Hindu Mahasabha (22nd session) in 1940, Savarkar admitted that his party was aligning with Muslim groups in different provinces in opposition to the Congress. His following words only corroborate the fact that Hindu-Muslim communalists had united against the Congress:
"At several places they (the Hindu Mahasabhaites) succeeded in inflicting defeats on the Congress candidates and today representatives of the Hindu Sanghatanist party form so influential minority in the provincial legislatures and some of the local bodies as to be able very often to hold the balance so as to influence the formation of the Moslem Ministries themselves. In addition to that, there are two to three Hindu Ministers in the (Muslim) Ministry itself who are pledged to the Hindu ticket. " (VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, p 399.)
Jinnah

Savarkar's two-nation theory

For a complete appraisal of Savarkar's role in advancing two-nation theory in pre-Independence India, we must get acquainted with his words and deeds while he was a freeman, guiding the Hindu Mahasabha from 1937 to 1942. These are available under the caption, "Hindu Rashtra Darshan", published by the Hindu Mahasabha, Maharashtra. While delivering presidential address to the 19th Hindu Mahasabha session at Ahmedabad in 1937, Savarkar unequivocally declared:
"As it is, there are two antagonistic nations living side by side in India, several infantile politicians commit the serious mistake in supposing that India is already welded into a harmonious nation, or that it could be welded thus for the mere wish to do so. These were well meaning but unthinking friends take their dreams for realities.
"That is why they are impatient of communal tangles and attribute them to communal organizations. But the solid fact is that the so-called communal questions are but a legacy handed down to us by centuries of cultural, religious and national antagonism between the Hindus and Moslems...
"Let us bravely face unpleasant facts as they are. India cannot be assumed today to be a unitarian and homogenous nation, but on the contrary there are two nations in the main: the Hindus and the Moslems, in India."
(VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, p 296.)
Thus, Savarkar, long before Mohammed Ali Jinnah’s adoption of the two-nation theory in 1940, was preaching it. Both stood together against Indian nationalism. Importantly, when the League passed its Pakistan resolution in Lahore (March 1940) Jinnah specifically referred to the above words of Savarkar in defence his brand of the two-nation theory.
Savarkar was not to be left behind in this thanks giving exercise. While addressing a press conference in Nagpur on August 15, 1943, he went to the extent of saying, “I have no quarrel with Mr Jinnah’s two-nation theory. We, Hindus, are a nation by ourselves and it is a historical fact that Hindus and Muslims are two nations” (cited in "Indian Annual Register", 1943, Vol 2, p 10.)
Savarkar’s belief in two-nation theory led him also to believe that the Muslim League exclusively represented all Muslims and the Hindu Mahasabha exclusively represented all Hindus. Savarkar, in the course of his presidential address to the 22nd session of the Hindu Mahasabha at Madura, thanked,
"His Excellency the Viceroy for having deliberately and decisively recognized (sic) the position of the Hindu Mahasabha as… the most outstanding representative Hindu body and finally coming to the conclusion that the Moslim (sic) League represents the Moslem interests, the Hindu Mahasabha the Hindu interest…" (VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, p 407.)
Dr BR Ambedkar, a keen observer and critic of the competitive Hindu-Muslim communal politics in pre-independence India, was candid in his belief that: 
"Strange as it may appear, Mr Savarkar and Mr Jinnah instead of being opposed to each other on the one nation versus two nations issue are in complete agreement about it. Both not only agree, but insist that there are two nations in India -- one the Muslim nation and the other Hindu nation. They differ only as regards the terms and conditions on which the two nations must live. (BR Ambedkar, "Pakistan or the Partition of India", Government of Maharashtra, Bombay, 1990 [reprint of 1946 edition], p142.)
If Savarkar with such anti-national ideas and practices to his credit can be awarded the highest national honour; Bharat Ratna, who can stop Mohammed Ali Jinnah from claiming the same?
---
*Well-known political science, formerly with Delhi University, Prof Islam's writings and video interviews/debates can be read here. Twitter: @shamsforjustice. Blog: http://shamsforpeace.blogspot.com/. Contact: notoinjustice@gmail.com

Comments

Nazrul Islam said…
Dear colleague:

You will be glad to know that my book, "Rivers and Sustainable Development" is getting published by the Oxford University Press. The book gives considerable coverage to the Narmada Bachao Andolon. In doing so it uses the image below

https://i2.wp.com/feminisminindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/narmada.jpg?fit=630%2C420&ssl=1

Credit for this image was given to Counterview. I would like to get the permission to use it in mya book above.

I couldn't find appropriate contact information in Counterview website about where to send this request. So I will appreciate if you kindly send it to whoever can give a response to this request. I will very much appreciate getting the permission.

Best regards,
Dr. Nazrul Islam
New York



Editor said…
Dear Dr Islam: Thanks for your interest. If I correctly remember, it is a photograph provided by NBA. We are a blog and not a formal, professional website. As for any formal permission, can you contact NBA leaders, especially Medha Patkar? Am sure, they will gladly agree. Thanks

TRENDING

India's GDP down by 50%, not 23%, job loss 200 million not 122 million: Top economist

By Our Representative One of India’s topmost economists has estimated that India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decline was around 50%, and not 23%, as claimed by the Government of India’s top data body, National Statistical Organization (NSO). Prof Arun Kumar, who is Malcolm S Adiseshiah chair professor, Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi, said this was delivering a web policy speech, organised by the Impact and Policy Research Institute (IMPRI), New Delhi.

JP advised RSS to give up Hindu Rashtra, disband itself: Ex-IAS officer tells Modi

Counterview Desk
Major MG Devasahayam IAS (Retd), chairman, People-First, in an open letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the occasion of Jayprakash Narain’s (JP’s) death anniversary (October 11) has wondered whether he remembers “a patriot called Jayaprakash Narayan”. Recalling what JP thought on issues such as communalism, freedom, democracy, Hindutva etc., Devasahayam says, Modi has been been doing “the very opposite of the principles and values for which JP lived and died.”

Buddhist shrines massively destroyed by Brahmanical rulers in "pre-Islamic" era: Historian DN Jha's survey

By Our Representative
Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book, "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

UP chief secretary, DGP have 'surrendered' to political diktat: 92 retired IAS, IPS officials

Counterview Desk
In an open letter to Uttar Pradesh chief minister Yogi Adityanath, 92 retired IAS, IFS and IPS bureaucrats, commenting on “blatant violations of the rule law” following the Hathras incident, have blamed that the Chief Secretary and the Director General of Police for abjectly failing to exercise control over a “highly compromised” administration the state.

Hathras reflects Manu's mindset dominates: 'Women are false, it's in their nature to seduce'

By Parijat Ghosh, Dibyendu Chaudhuri*
The woman died and then we woke up to protest. She was alive for two weeks after the heinous incident. Many of us even didn’t notice what had happened at Hathras, how she fought during the next 15 days. Those who noticed, many of them were not sure what actually had happened. So much so, we as a nation were more busy in finding out who among the Bollywood actresses were taking drugs, who smoked weed, who had ‘inappropriate’ or more than one relationship, what kind of private conversations they had in their chat boxes and what not!

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur*
Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

Delhi riots: Even British didn't accuse Bhagat Singh of reading Lenin, Jack London

By Vikash Narain Rai*
After the #BlackLifeMatters movement seriously tested the credibility of police across America, the Houston police chief Art Acevado talked of ending “lawful but awful” policing. No comparison, but in India, a citizens’ committee comprising former top judges and bureaucrats is now set to inquire into the role of the state machinery and media in handling the February 2020 Delhi violence, which followed protests against the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), “as the investigation by the Delhi Police has evoked extensive critical commentary in recent times.”

Degrading conditions amidst Covid-19: Toxic ship at Alang, Gujarat, 'endangers' migrants

Counterview Desk
Evironmental activist Dr Gopal Krishna, who edits the ToxicsWatch journal, in an open letter to the chairman, Ship Breaking Scrap Committee, Union Ministry of Shipping, with copies to the joint secretary, Union Ministry of Shipping and other Government of India ministries* has said that there exists “threat to Indian maritime environment and security from viral diseases like Covid-19 from ballast water and toxic substances.”

Human rights 'abuses': Funding to India should be vetted, Greens tell Australian govt

Counterview Desk
A roundtable organised by Australian Greens, which is the third biggest political group in the country, held to discuss human rights situation in India at the New South Wales Parliament in Sydney has insisted that parliamentarians, human rights activists and lawyers should play a more active role “standing up for human rights not just in their own places but also in India.”