Skip to main content

Gandhi 'didn't like' Dalit, tribal conversion to Christianity, even Sikhism or Buddhism

By Bhaskar Sur*
On January 23, 1999 Graham Stuart Steins, an Australian missionary working among the tribals of Odisha, was burnt to death along with his two children by members of the Bajrang Dal, an outfit close to the BJP. Stein had been working among the tribals and taking care of people suffering from leprosy, and in turn, he was deeply loved adored by the tribals impoverished, exploited and excluded.
The gruesome murder of the Steins set the pattern of subsequent pogroms adroitly planned and ruthlessly executed by the proponents of the same ideology. Since then Christian missionaries have been repeatedly attacked, and churches vandalized.
Yet it would come as no surprise to anyone familiar with the debate related to religious conversion of the tribals and untouchables. Conversion, which implies an individual's freedom to reject the religion she or he was born into and embrace another or not to believe in any religion, is an integral part of democratic freedom.
However, Mohondas Gandhi, so sentimentally associated with the Indian variety of secularism, was vehemently against it. For him Hindism represented the national culture of India and conversion, an anathema.
The fact remains that missionaries, by converting the untouchables and tribals, were liberating them from the endemic caste oppression, introducing them to modernity and giving them a voice.
Gandhi looked with horror anything that challenged the 'varnashram' or the caste system as it was for "the preservation of harmony and growth of soul". It is the rising dissent among the untouchables that prompted him to come up with an ingenious idea -- renaming them as 'Harijan' or 'God's children' and relaxing the taboo related to purity while keeping the caste system in place.
Gandhi looked upon untouchables or Dalis with a degrading patronizing attitude. In a debate with Dr Mott, a missionary, he remarked:
"Would you, Dr Mott, preach the Gospel to untouchables? Well some of the untouchables are worse than cows in understanding I mean they can no more distinguish between the relative merits of Islam or Hinduism and Christianity than can a cow..."
Though it shocked Ramchandra Guha, 'a staunch Gandhian', it is very much of a peace with Gandhi's core philosophy without its deceptive frills. So these helpless 'cows' must be protected from the 'cow eating' missionaries.
Ambedkar rightly remarked: "All these arguments of Gandhi are brought forth to prevent Christian missionaries converting the untouchables", and "Gandhi was grossly unjust to missions."
This apparent man of peace was at odds with the secular Indian state under the British rule. He did not conceal his intentions when, with God's blessings, he would come into power: "If I had the power and could legislate the first thing I will ban is conversion."
Yes, in free secular India, Gandhians and their Hindutva brethren have banned conversation in eight states where missionaries or mullahs have been framed in fabricated charges of forced or 'inducing' the person to convert.
Gandhi, we are told, had a great admiration for Christ, but only unconcealed hostility towards those who, braving all odds and in most trying circumstances, carried his word to those living in misery.
Gandhi was only against Dalits converting to the ruler's religion; he was equally against conversion to Buddhism or Sikhism
It would, however, be wrong to think that Gandhi was only against Dalits converting to the ruler's religion; he was equally against conversion to Buddhism or Sikhism, both of Indian origin. This brought him in conflict with Tagore, the poet and a public intellectual. Tagore, a liberal, enthusiastically supported the idea of Dalits converting to Sikhism, which arose out of anti-Brahminical reform movement .In an open letter he wrote:
"If the sanatani Hindus (most orthodox) are not prepared to extend the ordinary rights of a civilized existence to the Harijans, they should not also cry against these unfortunate victims seeking shelter in the Sikh fold."
This annoyed and irked Mahadev Desai, Gandhi's secretary. He wrote:
"Bapu could not believe you could ever have given your assent to a proposition like this because If he renounces Hinduism he renounces Hindu culture and all that goes by that name."
So Gandhi, for all his humility, was a defender of varnashrami or casteist Hindu culture rather than the plural and syncretic Indian culture!
Tagore, who by this time had grown into a radical, wrote with greater passion and eloquence defending the untouchable's right to embrace a new religion that gave him more dignity:
"I do hold the view that Buddhism and Sikhism were attempts from within at the eradication of one of the most intractable social deformities of Hinduism (caste system) that turns into ridicule all our aspiration for freedom". 
In the same letter (January 4, 1937) he fervently wished that Sikhism would have 'a nationwide perspective.'
India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, all the three nation states, fragments of the British Indian Empire, have increasingly become more intolerant societies with minorities -- Christians or otherwise, enjoying less and less religious (also civic) freedoms than they did under the British rule.
Isn't it therefore better that in the current crisis of secularism and in the suffocating atmosphere of hate, we should rather seek it in the much maligned colonial laws rather than the Gandhian cant?
---
Source: Author's Facebook timeline

Comments

TRENDING

Buddhist shrines massively destroyed by Brahmanical rulers in "pre-Islamic" era: Historian DN Jha's survey

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

Labelling a Jesuit a Marxist? It's like saying if you use a plane, you become American

Jesuits: Cedric Prakash, Stan Swamy By Fr Cedric Prakash SJ* A thirteen- fourteen-year-old has many dreams! That's an impressionable age; at the cusp of finishing school. It is also a time when one tastes a different kind of freedom: to go for camps with boys of your own age (not with ones family). Such camps and outings were always enjoyed to the hilt. The ones, however, which still remain etched in my memory are the mission camps to the Jesuit missions in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Giant conglomerates 'favoured': Whither tribal rights for jal-jungle-jameen?

Prafull Samantara By Mohammad Irshad Ansari*  The struggle for “Jal, Jungle and Jameen” has been a long-drawn battle for the tribal communities of India. This tussle was once again in the limelight with the proposed diamond mining in the Buxwaha forest of Chhatarpur (Madhya Pradesh). The only difference in this movement was the massive social media support it gained, which actually seems to tilt the scale for the tribal people in a long time.

Tussle between Modi-led BJP govt, Young India 'key to political battle': NAPM

Counterview Desk  In its month-long campaign, civil rights network National Alliance for People’s Movements (NAPM) carried out what it called Young People's Political Persecution and Resistance in “solidarity with all comrades facing political persecution and remembering human rights defender Stan Swamy…”

Lost to commercialisation, vanity? Ashram awaits 'second assassination' of Gandhiji

Counterview Desk  Around 130 “concerned” citizens, in a statement, have protested against the Government of India and Gujarat government decision to turn Gandhi Ashram into a ‘world-class’ tourist destination spread over 54 acres at the cost of Rs 1,200 crore, which would include a Gandhi Ashram Memorial, an amphitheater, a VIP lounge, shops and a food court, stating it would compromise and trivialize the “sanctity and importance of the present-day Ashram, mainly Hriday Kunj, surrounding buildings, and the museum.”

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

Debt bondage, forced labour, sexual abuse in Gujarat's Bt cottonseed farms: Dutch study

By Rajiv Shah  A just-released study, sponsored by a Netherlands-based non-profit, Arisa , “Seeds of Oppression Wage sharecropping in Bt cottonseed production in Gujarat, India”, has said that a new form of bondage, or forced labour, exists in North India’s Bt cottonseed farms, in which bhagiyas, or wage sharecroppers, are employed against advances and are then often required to work for years together “without regular payment of wages.”

Govt of India has 'no moral right' to declare national day for Muslim women, Naqvi told

Counterview Desk  In what has been described as a nationwide outpouring of condemnation, following the announcement by Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi, Minister of Minority Affairs, declaring August 1 as ‘Muslim Women’s Rights Day’ to mark the anniversary of the Triple Talaq law, over 650 citizens have said it is nothing but "cynical optics" of using Muslim women’s rights in the face of an "unprecedented" onslaught against the rights of the Muslims in recent years.

Covid: We failed to stop religious, political events, admits Modi-dharmacharya meet

Counterview Desk An email alert sent by one the 11 participants, Prof Salim Engineer, on behalf of the Dharmik Jan Morcha regarding their "religious leaders' online meet" with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, even as offering "support to meet challenges of Corona pandemic", blames religious congregations, though without naming the Maha Kumbh and other religious events, which apparently were instrumental in the spread of the second wave.

Madhya Pradesh Adivasis protest externment notice to Barwani tribal rights leader

By Harsing Jamre, Nasri Bai Ningwal, Prakash Bandod*  Over 2,500 Adivasis mobilized in response to Barwani district administration’s recent move to issue a show cause notice to Valsingh Saste, a prominent Adivasi activist of Jagrit Adivasi Dalit Sangathan (JADS), Madhya Pradesh. For two decades, Valsingh Saste as an activist of JADS has been continuously leading struggles for the constitutional and fundamental rights of Adivasis.