Skip to main content

When Savarkar said he had 'no quarrel' with Jinnah’s two-nation theory

Savarkar
By Shamsul Islam*
The Hindu Mahasabha under the presidentship of VD Savarkar aligned with the British masters to crush the Quit India Movement in 1942. The Responsive Cooperation with the British was not only a theoretical commitment. It soon got concretized in ganging up of the Hindu Mahasabha with the Muslim League.
When all political organizations, including the Congress, were banned, only the Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League were allowed to function. And it was during this period that the Hindu Mahasabha led by Savarkar ran coalition governments with the Muslim League. Savarkar defended this nexus in his presidential speech to the Kanpur session of the Hindu Mahasabha in the following words:
“In practical politics also the Mahasabha knows that we must advance through reasonable compromises. Witness the fact that only recently in Sind, the Sind Hindu Sabha on invitation had taken the responsibility of joining hands with the League itself in running coalition Government.
"The case of Bengal is well known. Wild Leaguers, whom even the Congress with all its submissiveness could not placate, grew quite reasonably compromising and socialable as soon as they came in contact with the HM and the Coalition government, under the premiership of Fazlul Huq and the able lead of our esteemed Mahasabha leader Dr Syama Prasad Mookerji, functioned successfully for a year or so to the benefit of both the communities.” (VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, pp 479-480.)
As explained by Savarkar in the Muslim League Bengal ministry, the second-in-command of the Mahasabha, Dr Syama Prasad Mukherjee was deputy to the Muslim League head of the ministry. Mukherjee also held portfolio of suppressing of the Quit India Movement.
The Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League, besides Bengal and Sind, ran coalition government in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) also during this period.
Savarkar joined hands with the League when the Congress opposed any dealing with the Muslim League. Dhananjay Keer in his biography of Savarkar, which is hailed as the most authentic by the Hinduvta icon's fans, admits that Savarkar had advised the Hindu leaders in the Muslim majority provinces to join ministries formed by the Muslim League.
In fact, both had been working in tandem for a couple of years. While addressing the Madura Conference of the Hindu Mahasabha (22nd session) in 1940, Savarkar admitted that his party was aligning with Muslim groups in different provinces in opposition to the Congress. His following words only corroborate the fact that Hindu-Muslim communalists had united against the Congress:
"At several places they (the Hindu Mahasabhaites) succeeded in inflicting defeats on the Congress candidates and today representatives of the Hindu Sanghatanist party form so influential minority in the provincial legislatures and some of the local bodies as to be able very often to hold the balance so as to influence the formation of the Moslem Ministries themselves. In addition to that, there are two to three Hindu Ministers in the (Muslim) Ministry itself who are pledged to the Hindu ticket. " (VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, p 399.)
Jinnah

Savarkar's two-nation theory

For a complete appraisal of Savarkar's role in advancing two-nation theory in pre-Independence India, we must get acquainted with his words and deeds while he was a freeman, guiding the Hindu Mahasabha from 1937 to 1942. These are available under the caption, "Hindu Rashtra Darshan", published by the Hindu Mahasabha, Maharashtra. While delivering presidential address to the 19th Hindu Mahasabha session at Ahmedabad in 1937, Savarkar unequivocally declared:
"As it is, there are two antagonistic nations living side by side in India, several infantile politicians commit the serious mistake in supposing that India is already welded into a harmonious nation, or that it could be welded thus for the mere wish to do so. These were well meaning but unthinking friends take their dreams for realities.
"That is why they are impatient of communal tangles and attribute them to communal organizations. But the solid fact is that the so-called communal questions are but a legacy handed down to us by centuries of cultural, religious and national antagonism between the Hindus and Moslems...
"Let us bravely face unpleasant facts as they are. India cannot be assumed today to be a unitarian and homogenous nation, but on the contrary there are two nations in the main: the Hindus and the Moslems, in India."
(VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, p 296.)
Thus, Savarkar, long before Mohammed Ali Jinnah’s adoption of the two-nation theory in 1940, was preaching it. Both stood together against Indian nationalism. Importantly, when the League passed its Pakistan resolution in Lahore (March 1940) Jinnah specifically referred to the above words of Savarkar in defence his brand of the two-nation theory.
Savarkar was not to be left behind in this thanks giving exercise. While addressing a press conference in Nagpur on August 15, 1943, he went to the extent of saying, “I have no quarrel with Mr Jinnah’s two-nation theory. We, Hindus, are a nation by ourselves and it is a historical fact that Hindus and Muslims are two nations” (cited in "Indian Annual Register", 1943, Vol 2, p 10.)
Savarkar’s belief in two-nation theory led him also to believe that the Muslim League exclusively represented all Muslims and the Hindu Mahasabha exclusively represented all Hindus. Savarkar, in the course of his presidential address to the 22nd session of the Hindu Mahasabha at Madura, thanked,
"His Excellency the Viceroy for having deliberately and decisively recognized (sic) the position of the Hindu Mahasabha as… the most outstanding representative Hindu body and finally coming to the conclusion that the Moslim (sic) League represents the Moslem interests, the Hindu Mahasabha the Hindu interest…" (VD Savarkar, "Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya: Hindu Rashtra Darshan", Vol 6, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, p 407.)
Dr BR Ambedkar, a keen observer and critic of the competitive Hindu-Muslim communal politics in pre-independence India, was candid in his belief that: 
"Strange as it may appear, Mr Savarkar and Mr Jinnah instead of being opposed to each other on the one nation versus two nations issue are in complete agreement about it. Both not only agree, but insist that there are two nations in India -- one the Muslim nation and the other Hindu nation. They differ only as regards the terms and conditions on which the two nations must live. (BR Ambedkar, "Pakistan or the Partition of India", Government of Maharashtra, Bombay, 1990 [reprint of 1946 edition], p142.)
If Savarkar with such anti-national ideas and practices to his credit can be awarded the highest national honour; Bharat Ratna, who can stop Mohammed Ali Jinnah from claiming the same?
---
*Well-known political science, formerly with Delhi University, Prof Islam's writings and video interviews/debates can be read here. Twitter: @shamsforjustice. Blog: http://shamsforpeace.blogspot.com/. Contact: notoinjustice@gmail.com

Comments

Nazrul Islam said…
Dear colleague:

You will be glad to know that my book, "Rivers and Sustainable Development" is getting published by the Oxford University Press. The book gives considerable coverage to the Narmada Bachao Andolon. In doing so it uses the image below

https://i2.wp.com/feminisminindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/narmada.jpg?fit=630%2C420&ssl=1

Credit for this image was given to Counterview. I would like to get the permission to use it in mya book above.

I couldn't find appropriate contact information in Counterview website about where to send this request. So I will appreciate if you kindly send it to whoever can give a response to this request. I will very much appreciate getting the permission.

Best regards,
Dr. Nazrul Islam
New York



Editor said…
Dear Dr Islam: Thanks for your interest. If I correctly remember, it is a photograph provided by NBA. We are a blog and not a formal, professional website. As for any formal permission, can you contact NBA leaders, especially Medha Patkar? Am sure, they will gladly agree. Thanks

TRENDING

Mystery around Gujarat PSU 'transfer' of Rs 250 crore to Canadian firm Karnalyte

By AK Luke, IAS (Retd)*
While returning from a Board meeting of the Oil India Limited (OIL) in Ahmedabad some time in 2012, two officers of the Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd (GSFC), Nanavaty and Patel,  saw me off at the airport. They said they were proceeding to Canada in connection with a project GSFC had entered into with a company there. As we were running late, I hastily wished them the best.

Savarkar in Ahmedabad 'declared' two-nation theory in 1937, Jinnah followed 3 years later

By Our Representative
One of the top freedom fighters whom BJP and Prime Minister Narendra Modi revere the most, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, was also a great supporter of the two nation theory for India, one for Hindus another for Muslims, claims a new expose on the man who is also known to be the original proponent of the concept of Hindutva.

Indians have made 119 nations their ‘karma bhumi’: US-based Hindu NGO tells Rupani

Counterview Desk
In a stinging letter to Gujarat chief minister Vijay Rupani, the US-based Hindus for Human Rights (HfHR), referring to the report citing his justification for the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) – that “while Muslims can choose any one of the 150 Islamic countries in the world (for residence), India is the only country for Hindus" – has said, he should remember, Hindus have made several countries, including USA, their home.

J&K continues to be haunted, as parts of India 'degenerate' into quasi-Kashmir situation

By Rajendran Narayanan*, Sandeep Pandey**
“Jab har saans mein bandook dikhe toh baccha kaise bekhauf rahe?” (How can a child be fearless when she sees a gun in every breath?) remarked Anwar, a gardener from Srinagar, when asked about the situation in Kashmir. On November 30, 2019, a walk through an iron gate in a quiet neighbourhood of Srinagar took us inside a public school. It was 11 am when typically every school is abuzz with activity. Not here though.

Tata Mundra's possible closure? Power ministry's 'pressure tactic' on consumer states

By Bharat Patel*
Tata power has announced to the Union Ministry of Power that Tata Power may be forced to stop operating  its imported coal-based Mundra Ultra-Mega Power Project (UMPP) after February, 2020. It is not only unfortunate but also criminal that irreversible damage has been caused to the fragile ecosystem of Mundra coast for a project that will have a running life of only seven years.

Population control? 10% Indian couples want to delay next pregnancy, but fail

Counterview Desk
Shireen Jejeebhoy, director at Aksha Centre for Equity and Wellbeing, previously senior associate at the Population Council, India, argues that the debate on the country's population was fuelled by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Independence Day address to the nation, where he drew attention to “concern” about the challenges posed by this ‘exploding’ population growth, needs to centre around the promotion of rights and education, instead of the language of explosion and the threat of coercion that this term implies.

Upendra Baxi on foolish excellence, Indian judges and Consitutional cockroaches

By Rajiv Shah
In a controversial assertion, top legal expert Upendra Baxi has sought to question India's Constitution makers for neglecting human rights and social justice. Addressing an elite audience in Ahmedabad, Prof Baxi said, the constitutional idea of India enunciated by the Constituent Assembly tried to resolve four key conflicting concepts: governance, development, rights and justice.

Savarkar 'criminally betrayed' Netaji and his INA by siding with the British rulers

By Shamsul Islam*
RSS-BJP rulers of India have been trying to show off as great fans of Netaji. But Indians must know what role ideological parents of today's RSS/BJP played against Netaji and Indian National Army (INA). The Hindu Mahasabha and RSS which always had prominent lawyers on their rolls made no attempt to defend the INA accused at Red Fort trials.

Savarkar 'opposed' Bhagat Singh's, Netaji's dream of India, supported British war efforts

By Shamsul Islam*
In a shocking development, the student wing of the RSS put the busts of martyrs Bhagat Singh and Subhash Chandra Bose with Savarkar's on one pedestal at the University of Delhi late in the night on August 20, 2019. Bhagat Singh sacrificed his life for a socialist-democratic-secular republic and Netaji raised Azad Hind Fauj (INA) consisting of people of all religions and regions for armed liberation of India.