Skip to main content

Cabinet expansion blues: Will Modi seek to induct professionals, experienced persons?

By Mohan Guruswamy* 

Prime Minister Narendra Modi is expected to announce the expansion of his Cabinet soon. This is being necessitated with eyes on the state Assembly elections slated for 2022 and the 2024 general elections. The Union Cabinet can have up to 81 members, but currently there are only 53 (with 28 vacancies).
On July 7, 2004 the 91st amendment to the Constitution took effect. This the size of the Councils of Ministers at the Centre and in the States cannot exceed 15% of the numbers in the Lok Sabha or State Legislatures. The logic underlying this amendment was quite obvious. Cost was not the issue, for in relation to the overall cost of government, expenditure on ministers is minuscule. The real problem is that with unlimited ministerships on offer the destabilization of governments was made easier.
Unfortunately there seems to be little realization that too many cooks spoil the broth.
Even the National Committee to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC), which recommended that the number of ministers “be fixed at the maximum of 10% of the total strength of the popular House of the Legislature”, did not seem to have thought this matter through. But even this recommendation was tweaked a bit to fix the ceiling at 15%, as we seem to have too many overly keen to be of greater service to the public by becoming ministers.
Whatever be the reasons for the ceiling, good governance considerations or management principles seem to have little to do with it. We have 548 MP’s in the Lok Sabha, which means that we can have up to 81 ministers in New Delhi. With 787 MP’s in all, that means almost one in nine MPs can be a minister. The states have in all 4,020 MLAs; opening up possibilities for about 600 ministerial berths for 4487 MLA’s and MLC’s. Uttar Pradesh has the biggest legislative assembly with 403 MLA’s or 60 ministers, while Sikkim at the other end of the spectrum has to make do with just 32 MLA’s or 5 ministers.
Quite clearly the persons who have applied their minds to this amendment have not seen government as a responsibility that has to be sensibly shared and not as a basket of fruits to be distributed. No organization that is meant to function can be designed on such a basis. Analogies are seldom entirely appropriate, but you will see what one has in mind when you consider the absurdity of limiting the number of functional responsibilities in a company to a function of the number of workers or shareholders.
Management structures and hierarchies are constructed on assignment of responsibilities according to the technical and managerial specialization of tasks. Thus a large corporation might have heads for the Production, Marketing, Finance, HRD, Legal and Secretarial, and Research functions, while in a small company just one or two persons may perform all these functions. The important thing is that management structures apportion tasks and responsibilities.
Obviously the management of government is a much more complex with an infinitely larger set of tasks than the biggest corporation, however professionally managed it may be. But to divide the management of the State into 39 functional responsibilities, as is the case now, is to exaggerate that magnitude and complexity.
It is as if in an automobile company making and selling cars, the person responsible for making gearboxes is at the same level as the persons looking after the paint shop or procuring accessories. As if this was not bad enough all these would then be at the same level as the head of Production or Marketing or Finance. 
Yet this is how the Cabinet is organized. There is a minister for Rural Development and a minister for Panchayati Raj as there are ministers for Irrigation and Fertilizers, sitting on the same table as the Minister for Agriculture.
It should be quite apparent that the 91st amendment is not good enough as it just does not address the issue of making government effective
We know that all agriculture is rural and everything in the rural world revolves around agriculture and so the case for separating the two goes straight away. Besides Agriculture is about Water, Fertilizer, Food distribution, Food Processing, Agro and Rural Industries. Thus, instead of having one person responsible for improving the lot of our farmers and rural folk, we have nine departments headed by nine equal in rank ministers. They often work at cross- purposes.
In Jawaharlal Nehru’s first cabinet (see photo) there was only one minister for Food and Agriculture. The only agriculture related function not with this minister was Irrigation. Gulzarilal Nanda held the portfolio of Planning, Irrigation and Power. But in those days additional power was intended primarily from hydel projects and it thus possibly made sense to have irrigation outside the Food and Agriculture ministry.
Likewise Transport and Railway was one ministry while it has been broken up into five areas now. Some of them quite ridiculously small. Take the Ministry for Civil Aviation. Apart from near defunct Air India, diminished Airports Authority of India and the DGCA there is little to it. 
The first two are companies with full time managers supposedly managing them. Since the ministry has little policy to make it busies itself micromanaging the companies. And what is the need for a Ministry of Information and Broadcasting when that means little more than Akashvani and Doordarshan?
By now it should be quite apparent that the 91st amendment is not good enough as it just does not address the issue of making government effective. We now need a 92nd amendment that will marginally change Article 74(1) of the Constitution to read “there will be a Council of Ministers consisting of the Ministers for Home Affairs, Defence, Foreign Relations, Agriculture etc. clearly specifying tasks and responsibilities”.
With Article 75(1) that makes it incumbent for the President to appoint Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister, remaining as it is, we may want to look at Article 75(5) afresh and consider the merit of eliminating the stipulation of getting elected to either houses of Parliament or legislatures. We could encourage Prime Ministers and Chief Ministers to induct professionals and experienced persons rather than be limited to professional leaders.
If Modi wants to survive politically and leave a well regarded legacy, the surest way would be to make his government more effective. For that he needs to focus on competence on the field and better bench strength.
---
*Well-known policy analyst, former adviser, Union finance ministry. Source: Facebook timeline

Comments

TRENDING

Ganga world's second most polluted river, Modi's Varanasi tops microplastics pollution

By Rajiv Shah  Will the new report by well-known elite NGO Toxics Link create a ripple in the powerful corridors of Delhi? Titled “Quantitative analysis of microplastics along River Ganga”, forwarded to Counterview, doesn’t just say that Ganga is the second most polluted river in the world, next only to Yangtze (China). It goes ahead to do a comparison of microplastics pollution in three cities shows Varanasi – the Lok Sabha constituency of Prime Minister Narendra Modi – is more polluted compared to Kanpur and Haridwar.

Madhya Pradesh tops India's 145 instances of 'anti-Christian atrocities' this year

Counterview Desk  A report prepared by the Religious Liberty Commission of the Evangelical Fellowship of India (EFI), founded in 1951 as the national alliance of evangelical Christians of the Protestant denomination, in its just-released report, “Hate and Targeted Violence against Christians in India: Half Yearly Report 2021”, has said that an analysis of 145 cases of violence it has documented against Christians, mainly by non-state actors, “stems from an environment of targeted hate.”

Demolition drive: Why aren't high-end hotels, farmhouses treated same way as Khorigaon?

By Our Representative A public hearing, sponsored by the civil rights group National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM) to hear the affected citizens of Khorigaon, off Faridabad, Delhi NCR, has seen local people complaining how their houses are being demolished even as the entire area was converted into a prison through heavy police deployment.

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

Meaningful? Punjab govt's debt waiver offer for agricultural workers, landless farmers

By Dr Gian Singh*    On July 14, 2021, the Punjab government announced that it would hold a state level function on August 20 to waive the debt of agricultural labourers and landless farmers(pure tenants) of Punjab to the tune of Rs 590 crore. Prior to the 2017 elections, the Congress party had promised in its election manifesto and public speeches that the Punjab government would waive all the institutional and non-institutional debt of farmers and agricultural labourers of Punjab.

How real is Mamata challenge to Modi? Preparing for 2024 'khela hobey' moment

By Prof Ujjwal K Chowdhury*  Third time elected West Bengal Chief Minister, Mamata Banerjee is on a whirlwind tour of Delhi, meeting everyone who matters within and beyond the government, the Prime Minister, the President, some Cabinet ministers, Sonia and Rahul Gandhi, several other opposition leaders, et al.

How BSF, police, court turned Bangladeshi woman slave victim into accused in crime

Counterview Desk  Civil rights leader Kirity Roy has strongly objected to the manner in which the Border Security Force (BSF) , the police and the judiciary in West Bengal have treated a 35 years old Bangladeshi woman victim of human trafficking, who was subjected to sexual exploitation for 15 long years, has been declared guilty of violating the Foreigners Act, violating all human rights norms.

Buddhist shrines massively destroyed by Brahmanical rulers in "pre-Islamic" era: Historian DN Jha's survey

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

Pro-corporate? New GoI circular 'blatant attempt' to control Adivasi lives, livelihoods

By Hemant Das*  The Indian Community Activists Network (ICAN) condemns the anti-forest dwellers circular jointly issued by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) and the (Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA), Government of India (GoI) on July 6. 

Covid impact on menstrual cycles? Young girls 'relapsing' back to unhygienic old-cloth rags

By Dr Sudeshna Roy*  Covid-19 pandemic has gripped the world in health and economic shock. Combating this public health crisis has diverted development resources earmarked for adolescents and the youth. India; having world’s second largest population; 1.38 crores as per UN mid-year 2020 estimation, also shelters the largest adolescents and young adult population, which at 243 million constitute 20% of the world’s 1.2 billion adolescent population.