Skip to main content

Exodus of migrant workers from Delhi: Where are the data to help foresee the crisis?

By PC Mohanan, Arjun Kumar* Large scale exodus of migrant labourers from Delhi following the announcement of the nationwide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis stirred up the nation’s conscience. Haunting scenes of people defying the law enforcing agencies’ instructions to keep safe distances from each other and not crowding at bus and railway stations and attempting to walk hundreds of kilometers in the absence of any transport were due to administrative inadequacies.
A complete lockdown is an untested exercise anywhere in the world, but what cannot be denied is the total absence of factoring the migrant population in the decision-making.
Documents on Indian domestic migrants have highlighted how most of the migrants, especially those coming for employment, do not carry government provided welfare entitlements to their place of migration. This adds to the woes in reverse migration, especially when there are uncertainties over their lives and livelihood.
Migration has many dimensions and migrants come with many intentions from many places. Individually they are visible everywhere in the city but collectively they are rarely accounted for in the city’s demography. Failure to quantify the city population characteristics is a failure of the statistical apparatus.
As per the 2011 Census, the National Capital Region (NCT) of Delhi had a population of 13.9 million. Of this nearly 51% were migrants from within India. Close to a million (14% of the population) was people who migrated for employment. In this situation, it is obvious to understand the widespread unease among them when their livelihoods stand threatened by a long economic lockdown.
In any city, migrants with a longer duration of stay are expected to be more established in terms of housing and other entitlements. In Delhi one in five migrants has had stayed for less than five years. Assuming that migration trends remained the same if not increased, it was to be expected that at least 2 lakh persons will be left to fend for themselves without any economic support or an address where any social security assistance can be delivered (Census Table D-3: Migrants by place of last residence, duration of residence and reason for migration – 2011).
Another point to note from the 2011 Census is that the migrants in Delhi are not evenly distributed within the city. The New Delhi and Central districts together account for only about 3% of the migrants. Majority of them are scattered in the periphery of the city (click here for table).
Another fact that comes to the fore during the recent spectacle of reverse migration was the direction of their movement, namely, these were mainly towards the eastern states of India. Over half of the Delhi migrants are from UP and Bihar, which accounts for about 65% of the migrants who came for work to Delhi. 
It is time for a comprehensive plan to address the data lags, which will help to factor in the city’s population in times of calamities
Other states having significant migrant population were: Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttarakhand. These five states accounted for 75% of the migrants in Delhi in 2011. If we see the migrants who came for work then these states account for 81% of them (click here for table).
Around 40,000 relief camps and shelters have been set up (as on April 12, 2020) all over country in which over 14 lakh stranded migrant workers and other needy people are provided relief. Out of this, more than 80% of relief camps have been set up by states, while the rest are by NGOs. Also, over 26,000 food camps have been set up in which more than 1 crore people are being provided food. Over 16.5 lakh workers are being provided food and relief by their employers and industries.
The hotspot of these relief shelters and camps are in the cities of Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, etc. Southern states are handling the situation relatively well as compared with capital Delhi. In Delhi, as of 15 April 2020, more than 6 lakh people were provided food from over 1800 camps, operating from shelters (223 shelter homes having capacity of over 18,000 and live occupancy of mere 7,000).
Sufficient data is not available on the living arrangements of the migrants, their economic or occupational engagements, especially at city levels. The Census does provide the aggregated numbers with limited qualitative dimensions. We do not have any inter-censal surveys to project the census migration data before the next census.
While the Census is held decennially, the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) used to fill the gap with surveys on employment and migration every five years. These have been dispensed with. The last NSSO survey on internal migration and outmigration was held in 2007-08 (64th Round). It is time for a comprehensive plan to address the data lags, which will help to factor in the city’s population in times of calamities -- whether natural or something like the COVID-19 type pandemic health crisis.
--- 
*Respectively: Director, Impact and Policy Research Institute (IMPRI), New Delhi (contact: arjun@impriindia.org); former acting chairperson of the National Statistical Commission (NSC) and mentor, IMPRI

Comments

TRENDING

Nirma varsity demand for higher fees 'illegal', violates Article 14: Letter to Gujarat HC

Counterview Desk
Students of Gujarat’s top private institute, Nirma University, situated in the outskirts of Ahmedabad, in a letter to the Chief Justice the state High Court, have complained that the authorities are demanding “full fees” from students, without taking into account the “disproportionate impact” the lockdown has on the livelihood of students and families.

Vulnerable to Covid-19, sharp rise in murder of Indian journalists during pandemic

By Nava Thakuria*
Vulnerability of working journalists in India is no way an alien issue as the populous country loses a number of working journalists to assailants as also medical emergencies. Even though there was only one casualty in the Indian media fraternity during the first half of 2020, who was targeted for journalistic work, India has begun witnessing an alarming number of media casualties during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Buddhist shrines massively destroyed by Brahmanical rulers in "pre-Islamic" era: Historian DN Jha's survey

By Our Representative
Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book, "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

Cruel legacy of Green Revolution? Covid-19 underscores 'risky, fragile' food system

By Moin Qazi*  The Covid-19 crisis has highlighted the risks of an unhealthy diet and the extreme fragility of food systems. The economic reconstruction that will follow the pandemic is the perfect opportunity to provide better nutrition and health to all. The pandemic should spur us to redefine how we feed ourselves, and agricultural research can play a vital role in making our food systems more sustainable and resilient.

Plant organic, eat fresh: Emlen Bage's journey from migrant labour to agri-entrepreneur

By Chandrashekar and Kriti*
Who is a farmer? Type this question in the google search and check out the images? You can see men thronging the screen. This is the popular perception around the globe. Well one can understand how difficult it would be for a woman to defy this perception.

High youth unemployment: India 'fails' to take advantage of demographic dividend

By Varun Kumar
As coronavirus pandemic continues amplifying challenges among youth with regard to employment opportunities, government policies have further resulted in economic slowdown, leading to mass unemployment and loss jobs. According to the International Labour Organisation report “Covid-19 and the World of Work” (May 27, 2020), around 94 percent of the world’s workers are living in countries with some sort of workplace closure measures in place.

Dichotomy? US Hindutva groups oppose racism, mum on Modi's 'anti-minority' stance

By Our Representative
The Hindus for Human Rights (HHR), a US-based advocacy group, has noticed a major dichotomy between the stance taken by RSS’ US arm, Hindu Swayamsewak Sangh (HSS), expressing “shock” at the “painful killing of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and so many others”, all of which suggest “the tragic tale of racial injustice” in US, and HSS’ “hatred” for India’s religious minorities and Dalits.

Ahmedabad lockdown: 37% poor households didn't get ration, Dalits, Muslims worst hit

By Rajiv Shah
An authoritative survey, carried out by a group of academics and social workers, among low-income settlements in Ahmedabad during the Narendra Modi-announced Covid-19 lockdown, has said a whopping 37% of the households did not receive any free ration from the government. Of those who did receive ration (59% households), Dalits or scheduled caste (SC) and minority communities were found to be at the receiving end.

Bhima Koregaon: Demand to free all 'political' prisoners as Varavara Rao tests Covid positive

Counterview Desk
The Campaign Against State Repression (CASR), a network of several civil society, trade union, students and civil rights groups, has sought immediate release of veteran poet-activist Varavara Rao, who has tested Covid-19 positive. Also seeking release of all political prisoners, in a statement, CASR said, “Instead of making arrangements for immediate medical care and treatment, the Taloja Jail authorities denied him medical care.”