Skip to main content

Constituting 88% of total trips, public transport in Kolkata, Mumbai has led to lower vehicular pollution: Study

Counterview Desk
A new study of urban vehicular  pollution has said that Kolkata and Mumbai “emit least among six megacities due to high usage of public transport and walking”. According to the study “Kolkata ranks sixth among all the 14 cities, but it wins among the six megacities”, and does better than Pune and Ahmedabad, because “the average distance travelled by different modes in Kolkata is lowest among all megacities.”
Carried out by Anumita Roychowdhury and Gaurav Dubey of the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi, and supported by the MacArthur Foundation of Chicago, the study says, “Kolkata also has the lowest vehicle stock among the megacities and second highest share of public transport”, adding, “About 60% of all its travel trips are within 3–4 km. This is exactly the model that Japanese cities and Hong Kong have followed.”
Titled “The Urban Commute: And how it contributes to pollution and energy consumption”, the study says, “ Kolkata has the most diverse public transport system for urban commuting – buses (now upgrading to electric buses), metro, trams, suburban rail, para-transit and waterways. If the share of public transport and para-transit are combined, they constitute 88% of the total trips in the city.”
“This shows that only high population, high travel volume and economic growth need not necessarily lead to higher automobile dependency”, comment authors, adding, “Early investment in diverse and connected public transport, and physical restraints can help. Kolkata’s public transport culture, compact city design, high street density, short travel distances and restricted availability of land for roads and parking are among the good practices. It helps reduce overall emissions and guzzling.”
Mumbai, ranking next to Kolkata among megacities, also wins, says the study, “as a result of its public transport spine – primarily its suburban rail system. Public transport and para-transit add up to 89% of all motorized trips in Mumbai.”
“Interestingly”, the study says, “Mumbai has one of the highest trip length for personal vehicles and yet its overall guzzling and emissions are comparatively lower as its suburban rail, which has zero local emissions, meets 52% of the travel demand in the city. Thus, despite having highest trip generation and volume of travel Mumbai could reduce negative impacts by adopting an intelligent public transport strategy.”
Comment the authors, “Mumbai has also proved that economic growth need not necessarily translate into high personal vehicle dependence. Even with highest per capita GDP among the six megacities and highest volume of trip generation, use of personal modes is lowest in Mumbai. This has helped Mumbai to have lower emissions and guzzling compared to most other megacities.”
Pointing towards why Delhi ranks worse of not just six metropolitan cities but also all the 14 cities studied, the study says, this could be because of megaciy's “current abysmal level of walking and public transport”, resulting in “a massive scale of overall emissions, pollution and energy guzzling.” Added to this is “sheer effect of population, volume of travel and highest vehicle stock”, all of which “eclipses the benefits of having CNG and better travel parameters than other cities.”
Thus, Delhi emits 5 times more particulate matter (PM) emission load from urban commuting than Kolkata, and 3 times more than Mumbai, 13 times more than Bhopal, 9 times more than Chandigarh and 8 times more than Vijayawada. And as for CO2, Delhi emits 4 times higher than Kolkata, 2.3 times higher than Mumbai, 1.7 times higher than Hyderabad.
As for other cities, the study warns, “Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Vijayawada, Pune and Jaipur are at an inflection point. Their per trip emissions are in the middle of the spectrum, and depending on what direction their mobility policies take over the next years and decades, their pollution levels may increase or decrease accordingly. They need to take corrective measures now and avoid the fate of the megacities.”
An assessment of 14 cities, based on emissions of heat-trapping carbon dioxide and toxic pollutants of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, as well as energy guzzling from urban commuting, the ranking, says the study, is based on aggregated overall emissions and energy use from the urban commute by combining the overall quantum of aggregated toxic emissions of PM and nitrogen oxides (NOx), heat-trapping carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and energy consumption from urban commuting practices.

Comments

Unknown said…
Thanks for sharing this post. This post is very helpful for me. I would like to be share with my other friends. Get More Information Visit Here: Tony Danillo

TRENDING

ISKCON UK 'clarifies' after virus infects devotees, 5 die due to big temple meet

By Rajiv Shah
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), United Kingdom (UK), has admitted that at least 21 of its devotees were infected because of the spread of the coronavirus amongst the UK devotee community following the March 12 funeral and March 15 memorial of the Bhaktivedanta Manor temple president, in which about 1,000 people participated. Regretting that five of the devotees have passed away, the top Hindu religious in Britain body does not deny more may have been infected.

Mallika Sarabhai releases speech she was 'not allowed' to give at NID Convocation on Feb 7

Counterview Desk
The National Institute of Design (NID) in Ahmedabad, a Ministry of Commerce and Industry body, landed itself in controversy following its decision to put off its 40th convocation ceremony, where noted danseuse Mallika Sarabhai was invited as chief guest. The ceremony was scheduled to be held on February 7.

As corona virus 'travels' to rural areas, NGO begins training tribals, marginalised women

By Souparno Chatterjee*
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared corona virus a pandemic. Originating from Wuhan in China, it has traversed the entire globe, almost, and claimed more than 16,000 lives already. That’s largely the urban population. In India, despite all the preparedness and war-like promptness to safeguard against the pandemic, several lives have been lost , and hundreds of individuals have tested positive.

Rani Laxmi Bai, Tatya Tope 'martyred' by East India Company, Scindia's forefathers

By Our Representative
In an email alert to Counterview, well-known political scientist Shamsul Islam has said that was “shameful for any political party in democratic India to keep children of Sindhias in their flock” given their role during the First War of Indian Independence (1857). In a direct commentary on Madhya Pradesh Congress leader Jyotiraditya Scindia moving over to BJP, Prof Islam has quote from a British gazetteer to prove his point.

COVID-19: Dalit rights bodies regret, no relief plan yet for SCs, STs, marginalized

By Our Representative
In a letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the National Dalit Watch-National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, endorsed* by several other Dalit rights organizations, have insisted, the Government of India should particular care of the scheduled castes and tribes, trans folks, persons with disabilities and the women and children from these communities, while fighting against COVID-19 pandemic.

Coronavirus scare ‘pushing’ people from Northeast India into more hardship

By Rishiraj Sinha, Biswanath Sinha*
“No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background or his religion. People learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.” – Nelson Mandela
***

Gujarat govt plan to 'banish' Gandhian activist anti-democratic, unconstitutional

By Rohit Prajapati*
The current Central and Gujarat governments, and their bureaucracy, have been and are still unable to answer and address the concerns raised, with facts, figures, and constitutional provisions, regarding the terror of tourism in the name of the Statue of Unity and tourism projects surrounding it.

Gujarat construction workers walk home as Rs 2,900 crore welfare fund lies unused

By Our Representative
Situated behind the Gujarat University, some of the families of the migrant construction workers from Dahod and Panchmahals districts of Gujarat, and a few from Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, who had stayed put in make-shift shanties in Ahmedabad’s sprawling GMDC Ground, have begun a long journey, by foot, back to their home villages in the eastern tribal belt of Gujarat.

Modi, Shah 'forget': Gandhi’s first Satyagraha was against citizenship law of South Africa

By Nachiketa Desai*
Hindu fanatic Nathuram Godse assassinated Mahatma Gandhi once on January 30, 1948 but his followers raising the war cry of ‘Jai Sriram’ are killing the Mahatma every day. In his home state of Gujarat, Gandhiji was killed a thousand times in 2002 when over 2,000 Muslims were butchered, their women raped, homes and shops plundered and set on fire and even unborn babies ripped out of the wombs of their mothers.