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Understanding universe, time, space: A crucial, unresolved question before humanity

By Prof Sudhanshu Tripathi* 

A crucial question before humanity, still unresolved, is to comprehend the true nature and expanse of Time and Space in Universe. If both are indeed limitless, there is no question then to go beyond them. Because both Time and Space are indeed the two key determinants in this mundane world which define the very expanse of the life period of all living organisms and non-living entities and their relative spatial area producing mental and extra-mental consciousness. 
If these two determinants are absent in the world or even beyond, there will be no order or balance in the universe and that may result into utter cacophony or chaos to imagine. Indeed it is almost next to impossible to imagine the vast extant of the universe. In fact, the universe has been differently explained in the religious scriptures as well as in modern sciences. While millions of Akaash Gangas (Milky Ways) or Galaxies constitute to form a Universe, the galaxy in itself is very mysterious as it is supposed to comprise of hundreds or thousands of universe. That in essence defines the very position of not only the planet earth in the universe but also all living creatures and non-living objects scattered on the earth and even beyond.
Fortunately or unfortunately time is supposed to move only in one direction which is a forward movement in all circumstances as regards our temporal world is concerned. Indeed the motion of time can’t be reversed by us as human-beings just as a computer/monitor is shifted to prior dates expanding from days to months so as to recover its prior health as well as performance which is certainly better to what it obtains today. As regards space while most of the known living entities do possess relatively smaller place to couch their selves having relatively lesser period of their sustenance on earth, the non-living objects may or may not have larger space to occupy with considerably long time-span to exist. An obvious question arises here whether the universe is a living entity or not and what exactly is its life span in the cosmos. What then is the relation between the universe and cosmos?
Since the universe is almost unknown today or just 5 to 6% is said to have been explored by the scientist across the world, it is indeed mysterious and looks beyond the scope of empirical and verifiable knowledge. Although space missions from advanced countries viz. the US, Russia, UK, China and few more including India have so far collected very relevant information and knowledge in this field, yet unfortunately much still remains away from scientific comprehension and that evidently underscores the substance of the mysterious universe. This is why an inquisitive mind commonly takes recourse to imagination or contemplation or ultimately philosophy and metaphysics to explore the facts and truths regarding the universe and aforesaid determinants viz. time and space.
As the world has its own limits to explore, then an obvious question arises as to how to explore to determine the expanse of time and space in the world or even beyond into the space. These determinants may largely be supposed to work most probably due to the gravitational force of Earth and the planetary movements of different planets into the solar system including other celestial bodies in the universe. Now the question is that why does gravitational force emerge to affect the other celestial bodies in the space. And it is a peculiar phenomenon that why most of the planets revolve around Sun. Earlier it was commonly accepted that the sun revolves around the earth as it is at the centre of the universe until Nicholas Copernicus contradicted this assertion in the circa 1500.
Why is the sun supposed to be at the centre of the universe? Because the sun is the very large or perhaps the biggest known celestial body in the universe having a number of planets revolving around it and that together with these planets constitutes as a whole and that forms its own solar system visible from the earth or with the help of telescopes. Having a huge gaseous mass undergoing constant nuclear fission, thereby producing unimaginably high temperature and light as well as sound therein, creates continuous burning evaporation declining and reducing their mass of the other heavenly bodies there-around. Because it leads to conversion of celestial mass into various forms of energy like heat, light and sound and more, apart from creating magnetic or even electro-magnetic fields around them. Almost all celestial bodies being very huge in size and weight do possess boiling magma, which happens to be fluid or semifluid rocks or reefs lying much deeper inside from their outward surface.
In fact, a huge body having boiling magma inevitably moves in either direction due to liquefied mass inside it – either spins or rotates – and such movement ultimately leads to centripetal or centrifugal forces to emerge and engulf the surrounding heavenly bodies. Thus it may be due excessive heat of the sun, which in terms of science is a huge ball of boiling flames comprising of burning gases, thereby reflecting heat and light with decreasing intensity in proportion to the distance away from the sun. Perhaps it is due to centripetal force that exists between the sun and all other planets that these (planets) are configured around the sun and their constant spinning at their respective axis creates the phenomenon of centrifugal force that counter-balances the centripetal force so as to result into their fixed distance from the sun.
While the heat or consequent light is the source of life on the earth, that may possibly be true with respect to few other planets as well in the universe, the progressive fall in temperature with increasing distance from its source, as the sun here stands out, may be significant as regards gravitational force of a particular celestial body in the universe including planets and the sun. Keeping huge mass with them, these celestial bodies or planets rotate or revolve on their axis and around a bigger heavenly body respectively most likely due to the so-obtained temperature difference from the sun to these celestial bodies and the melting magma producing outward thrusts to create movements as already stated. The consequent phenomenon becomes especially important to cite here as these heavenly bodies themselves produce heat from their inner core and the temperature difference from their core to their surface and also the same from the sun perhaps largely produces spinning movement in them on their axis and also leads to their revolving around the sun due to it being the huge most celestial body.
Further the direction of spin may not be same in each of the celestial body or the planet as a particular incline of their mass may not be same in all such bodies. Thus clock-wise or anti-clock wise spin movement of these celestial bodies. The origin of the gravitational force of the earth appears to be due to its rotation on its axis including its simultaneous revolution around the sun. But why does the earth rotate and simultaneously revolve around the sun. And that is possibly the phenomenon with all the known planets in the solar system.
If these facts hold substance then the relative movements of these planets - whether on their respective axis or around the sun - may reasonably be supposed to create an environment characterized by its marked presence into duration and expanse. In fact, the spinning and revolving of these planets having their huge mass inevitably lead to attraction and similar counter-attraction or repulsion or similar counter-repulsion among all planets and other celestial bodies viz. asteroids and other unknown astral bodies as well.
While mass factor in all heavenly bodies has its own contributory role to manifest into various forms to lead to creating a duration and space, it definitely has relative context or relativity factor to actualize into respective inter-body relations and intra-body changes. And for that it is but necessary to understand the Universe: what exactly it is or what is its nature, scope and also its powers as well. What is then the relation between Universe and Cosmos? The Google answer explains thus: “Cosmos” is a whole harmonious and orderly system that is governed by natural law while “universe” is everything that exists including time and space, matter, and the laws that govern them. How much this answer explains the truth is itself a mystery.
---
*Dept. Political Science, MDPG College, Pratapagarh (UP)

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