Skip to main content

Unpaid domestic work: India "competes" with Pakistan in high gender gap. Reason: Poor public spending

Ten best and ten worst countries
By Rajiv Shah
With 78.2% Indian females doing what is called “unpaid care work” -- as against just about 2.9% males -- a new International Labour Organization (ILO) study has found that the country’s gender gap in taking care of their families is among the highest in the world.
Identifying the time spent for domestic work, the 525-page study, “Care Work and Care Jobs for The Future of Decent Work”, says that Indian women spend 297 minutes a day as against 31 minutes by males in three different type of “care service” -- domestic services for own final use within the household, caregiving services to household members, and community services and help to other households.
By way of comparison, Chinese females do 237 minutes of unpaid work in a day as against 94 minutes by males, and Pakistani females do it for 286 minutes, as again 28 minutes by males.
The study further finds that the female-male gender gap for unpaid care work, calculated on a scale of 100, higher than India in only three of the 70-odd countries for which calculations have been carried out – Pakistan, Cambodia and Mali.
India would need to overcome 40.5% gender gap in order to reach gender equality in unpaid care work, as against 41.1% for Pakistan, 41.3% for Combodia and 42% for Mali women.
By comparison, Sweden would need to overcome the least gender gap, to the tune of just 5.3%, followed by Norway 6.1%, and Denmark 6.6%.
As against India’s 78.2 female unpaid care, workers who are “outside the labour force”, among neighbouring countries, Pakistan’s 80.5% females do unpaid care work as against 2.4% males, Bangladesh’s 66.6% females and 6.8% males, Sri Lanka’s 33.7% females and 5.2% males, Nepal’s 33.7% females and 4.7% males.

Among comparable BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), it is Brazil 28.5% for females against 1.8% for males, China 35.8% females and 14.1 males, Russia 40.7% females and 1.7% males, and South Africa 12.3 females and 0.3% males.
The high gender gap in unpaid care work in India, the study believes, should be studied alongside refusal of the rulers-that-be to spend on important care services such as pre-primary education services, maternity, disability, sickness and employment injury benefits, and long-term care services and benefits.
Thus, data from 45 countries show that India’s amount spent on care services is the second worse. The five countries, which appear to be spending less than about 1% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on care services are Ghana, South Africa, Mexico, Turkey, India and Indonesia.
The comparison shows that Nordic countries’ public spending the highest on care services; it is above 7% in Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway and Finland.
Pointing out that in India and Pakistan, women’s care work is a “significant source of women’s employment (representing 10 per cent of female employment)”, the study believes, a higher public spending on care economy to the tune of 2% of GDP in can create a big job market for women across the world.
Quoting International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) calculations, the study says, it would create “24 million new jobs in China, 11 million in India, 4.2 million in Brazil, nearly 2.8 million in Indonesia and just over 400,000 in South Africa, of which 43–74 per cent would go to women.”
Underling that “the magnitude of unpaid care work is enormous and often compensates for a lack of public expenditure on care services and infrastructure”, the study believes, “The expansion of care jobs would generate tax revenues that would contribute to financing the initial investment.”

Comments

Uma said…
What a shame! We are compared to 3rd world countries while trying to pass off as advanced.

TRENDING

Why do I lend my support to voices protesting world class renovation of Gandhi Ashram?

By Martin Macwan* One would not expect an activist working on Dalit rights to join such a protest. Dalits carry unhealed trauma that Gandhi caused to Dr BR Ambedkar and the Dalit cause of effective political representation by using violent means of his own definition in the event of the Poona Pact. This apart, Gandhi’s ideas in general, which changed often, on caste were orthodox. I have nothing to add to the subject after the sharpest critique offered by Dr Ambedkar.

Iswarchandra Vidyasagar was a 'frustrated' reformer who turned into a conservative

By Bhaskar Sur "If someone says the Manusamhita was written by all wise Manu and the principal scripture of the land and if he asks me to throw it away, I'll say it is nothing short of atrocious audacity." -- Iswarchandra Vidyasagar

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

Odisha bauxite mining project to 'devastate' life of 2,500 Adivasi, Dalit farmers: NAPM

Counterview Desk  While the public hearing on mining in Mali hills has been cancelled due to protests by Adivasi and Dalit farmers of the Mali Parbat Surakhya Samiti, Odisha, who have been protesting against the proposed bauxite mining project, India’s top civil rights network, National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM) has said it is “deeply concerned” at the decision of the Government of Odisha to push the project in a Schedule-V Adivasi-belt Koraput district against the interests of the people and environment.

Buddhist shrines were 'massively destroyed' by Brahmanical rulers: Historian DN Jha

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

2002 riots: Gujarat assembly 'misinformed' about dereliction of duty, says ex-DGP

By Rajiv Shah  Former Gujarat topcop RB Sreekumar, an IPS officer of the 1971 batch, has alleged that the Gujarat government gave “totally false information” on the floor of the State Assembly regarding the appeal he made to the Gujarat governor for the “initiation of departmental action against those responsible for culpable negligence in maintenance of public order and investigation of genocidal crimes” during the 2002 riots.

'Devastating impact': Rural workers suffer as Govt of India NREGA budget down by 34%

Counterview Desk  A civil rights group, the NREGA Sangharsh Morcha has sent a letter to the Prime Minister and the Minister of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj stating that 34 per cent decrease in the fiscal budget of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA) for year 2021-22 has added to woes on India’s rural population, already suffering from “devastating impact” of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Economy in tatters, labour codes 'take away' workers' safety, benefits, right to form TU

By Our Representative  The four new labour codes promulgated by the Government of India came in for sharp criticism from several labour unions and civil rights groups at one-day discussion meeting organised in Ranchi (Jharkhand) on the issue of ‘changes in labour laws. Participants in the meeting asserted that under these new codes, many of the benefits and safeties accorded to labourers have been "taken away", while the right of labourers to create trade unions has been attacked.

Celebrating birthday amidst image of 'coerced, submissive' India ruled by a strong leader

Pushkar Raj*  As the weeks long birthday festivity of the leadership was being rejoiced India wide, the Covid was still raging in several parts of India. The carnival was in line with the post-Covid decisions and actions of the leadership demonstrating a pursuit of personal power and glory instead of national interest in times of disease and death.

Politically-motivated: Global NGO network on ED 'harassment' of Harsh Mander

Counterview Desk  CIVICUS , a top global alliance of civil society organisations seeking to strengthen citizen action and civil society around the world with a claimed membership of more than 10,000, objecting to the alleged harassment of IAS bureaucrat-turned-human rights activist Harsh Mander by the Government in India, has said that the the the Enforcement Directorate (ED) raid on his house and office highlights “an ongoing pattern of baseless and politically-motivated criminal charges brought by the authorities against activists across India”.