Skip to main content

Unpaid domestic work: India "competes" with Pakistan in high gender gap. Reason: Poor public spending

Ten best and ten worst countries
By Rajiv Shah
With 78.2% Indian females doing what is called “unpaid care work” -- as against just about 2.9% males -- a new International Labour Organization (ILO) study has found that the country’s gender gap in taking care of their families is among the highest in the world.
Identifying the time spent for domestic work, the 525-page study, “Care Work and Care Jobs for The Future of Decent Work”, says that Indian women spend 297 minutes a day as against 31 minutes by males in three different type of “care service” -- domestic services for own final use within the household, caregiving services to household members, and community services and help to other households.
By way of comparison, Chinese females do 237 minutes of unpaid work in a day as against 94 minutes by males, and Pakistani females do it for 286 minutes, as again 28 minutes by males.
The study further finds that the female-male gender gap for unpaid care work, calculated on a scale of 100, higher than India in only three of the 70-odd countries for which calculations have been carried out – Pakistan, Cambodia and Mali.
India would need to overcome 40.5% gender gap in order to reach gender equality in unpaid care work, as against 41.1% for Pakistan, 41.3% for Combodia and 42% for Mali women.
By comparison, Sweden would need to overcome the least gender gap, to the tune of just 5.3%, followed by Norway 6.1%, and Denmark 6.6%.
As against India’s 78.2 female unpaid care, workers who are “outside the labour force”, among neighbouring countries, Pakistan’s 80.5% females do unpaid care work as against 2.4% males, Bangladesh’s 66.6% females and 6.8% males, Sri Lanka’s 33.7% females and 5.2% males, Nepal’s 33.7% females and 4.7% males.

Among comparable BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), it is Brazil 28.5% for females against 1.8% for males, China 35.8% females and 14.1 males, Russia 40.7% females and 1.7% males, and South Africa 12.3 females and 0.3% males.
The high gender gap in unpaid care work in India, the study believes, should be studied alongside refusal of the rulers-that-be to spend on important care services such as pre-primary education services, maternity, disability, sickness and employment injury benefits, and long-term care services and benefits.
Thus, data from 45 countries show that India’s amount spent on care services is the second worse. The five countries, which appear to be spending less than about 1% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on care services are Ghana, South Africa, Mexico, Turkey, India and Indonesia.
The comparison shows that Nordic countries’ public spending the highest on care services; it is above 7% in Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway and Finland.
Pointing out that in India and Pakistan, women’s care work is a “significant source of women’s employment (representing 10 per cent of female employment)”, the study believes, a higher public spending on care economy to the tune of 2% of GDP in can create a big job market for women across the world.
Quoting International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) calculations, the study says, it would create “24 million new jobs in China, 11 million in India, 4.2 million in Brazil, nearly 2.8 million in Indonesia and just over 400,000 in South Africa, of which 43–74 per cent would go to women.”
Underling that “the magnitude of unpaid care work is enormous and often compensates for a lack of public expenditure on care services and infrastructure”, the study believes, “The expansion of care jobs would generate tax revenues that would contribute to financing the initial investment.”

Comments

Uma Sheth said…
What a shame! We are compared to 3rd world countries while trying to pass off as advanced.

TRENDING

Whistle-blowing IPS officer Sanjiv Bhatt's wife suspects foul play after truck hits her car

By Nachiketa Desai*
Paranoia has seized Shweta Bhatt, wife of suspended Indian Police Service (IPS) officer Sanjiv Bhatt, after the car she was driving was rammed in broad day light. According to Shweta Bhatt, it was beacon light-flashing truck without registration number plate. The incident took place on January 7, just a day ahead of the Gujarat High Court was scheduled to take up the bail application of Sanjiv Bhatt, arrested last year for "involvement" in a 23-year-old case.

Call to support IIM-Bangalore professor, censured for seeking action against Uniliver

Counterview Desk
Sections of the Indian Institute of Managements (IIMs) across India have strongly reacted to the decision to censure Dr Deepak Malghan, a faulty at IIM-Bangalore. Prabhir Vishnu Poruthiyil, who is faculty at IIM-Tiruchirapalli, has sought wider solidarity with Dr Malghan, saying, "The administration has censured Deepak for merely suggesting a meaningful action against Hindustan Unilever for their abysmal environmental record" by “disinviting” it for campus placement.

Morari Bapu, who has installed new statues of Ram, Laxman, Hanuman without weapons

By Sandeep Pandey*
A saint is one who can give some inner peace by his/her voice. This will happen only when s(he) will talk about love and harmony. Morari Bapu is one saint who has been conveying the message of love, peace, harmony, fraternity, etc. Today when a number of saffron clad figures with aggressive posture, spewing venom, fanning hatred to polarise voters are at the forefront of politics of Hindutva it is a relief to see Morari Bapu in a different mould.

99% MGNREGA funds "exhausted", Govt of India makes no additional sanctions: Study

Counterview Desk
A letter, addressed to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and prepared by senior activists led by Aruna Roy on behalf of the Peoples’ Action for Employment Guarantee (PAEG), and signed, among others, by 80 members of Parliament, has regretted that, despite repeated public statements by his government promising employment and job creation that will boost the country’s growth, the country’s only employment guarantee programme, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), “is being systematically undermined.”

Nuclear reactors sought from French giant "not safe": Letter to Modi on Jaitapur project

Counterview Desk
Amidst reports that the French nuclear giant EDF has submitted a “techno-commercial offer” for the world’s largest nuclear power park proposed in Maharashtra’s Jaitapur nuclear power park in Jaitapur on the Maharashtra coast, Dr EAS Sarma, India’s former Union Secretary in the Minister of Power, and an eminent voice in the civil society, has written an open letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who also heads Department of Atomic Energy (DAE),  protesting the move.

World Bank clarifies: Its 26th rank to India not for universal access to power but for ease of doing business

By Our Representative
In a major embarrassment to the Government of India, the World Bank has reportedly clarified that it has not ranked India 26th out of 130 countries for providing power to its population. The top international banker’s clarification comes following Union Power Minister Piyush Goyal’s claim that India has “improved to 26 position from 99” in access to electricity in just one year.

Kaiga NPP expansion: Karnataka to get just 400 MW, but lose thick forest, fresh water

Counterview Desk
In an open letter to the chairman and members of the Atomic energy Commission (AEC) on the issue of Kaiga nuclear power plant (NPP) expansion plan in Karnataka, Shankar Sharma, well-known power policy analyst, has argued that that in case of expansion, the site will face “exponential increase in radiation emission risks”, underlining, “Nuclear safety experts identify such a scenario as enhanced risk for NPPs with multiple reactors and shared technical facilities."
Sharma says the questions that also be asked whether Karnataka should lose more than 54 hectares of thick forests and about 152,304 cubic meters of fresh water per day from Kali river for a meager benefit of 400 MW from the Kaiga NPP, for which “there are many benign alternative options available for the state at much lower overall costs to the state.”
Text of the letter: This has reference to the public hearing under the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Rule 2006 of Ministry of Environment, Fore…

Uttarakhand High Court: Biodiversity boards can impose fees on Ramdev's Divya Pharmacy

By Mridhu Tandon
In a significant decision, the Uttarakhand High Court on December 21, 2018 has dismissed the writ petition filed by Divya Pharmacy founded by Baba Ramdev and Acharya Balakrishnan, challenging the demand of the Uttarakhand Biodiversity Board (UBB) imposing fees under the provisions of the Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing (FEBS).

Modi becoming Prime Minister now appears to be an "accident" to the people of India

By Sandeep Pandey*
Anupam Kher's film 'Accidental Prime Minister' has targeted Dr Manmohan Singh who served for two terms and may be again acceptable for the job if his party regains power. But his tormentor Narendra Modi seems to be out of breath even before his first term is over. Disillusionment with him is so widespread and deep that people of India may not bear with him for another term. As the general elections approach again the difference between the two needs to be examined.

Story of a foot soldier of Gujarat riots coming from a vulnerable community, Chharas

By Rajiv Shah
He is one of the more prominent "foot soldiers" of the 2002 Gujarat riots. Suresh Jadeja, alias Langdo, alias Richard, is indeed a well-known name in the Naroda Patiya massacre case, in which 97 persons were killed on February 28, 2002, the first day of the riots that shook the nation. Ordinarily, such a person should have been subjected to sociological scrutiny. What have here is a keen journalistic account, with clear political-ideological overtone.