Skip to main content

19% Kerala's Hindu women suffer sexual violence, as against 13% Muslim and 14% Christian: World Bank study

By Rajiv Shah
A recent World Bank report on gender-based violence in Kerala, the state known for its best social indicators across India, has shockingly found that there is a much higher underreporting of incidence of sexual violence among Hindus compared to the state's two other major religious groups – Muslim and Christian.
As against the average of 9 per cent underreporting across all religions, the report finds, the underreporting is 10 per cent among Hindu, but 8 per cent each for Muslims and Christians.
In a further breakup, the research team led by George Joseph, a senior economist with the World Bank, says that among Hindu females, the underreporting is to the tune of 13 per cent, as against 10 per cent among Muslim females and 9 per cent among Christian females.
The researchers have calculated incidence of lifetime domestic violence in Kerala by comparing what individuals have to say in direct questioning with what they call the “list direct randomization method.”
An alternative to the method of direct questioning, under list randomization, respondents are given a set of true-false statements that are both relevant and inoffensive to the respondents’ socio-economic or political context to ascertain their attitude towards a particular issue.
The report, titled “Underreporting of Gender-Based Violence in Kerala, India: An Application of the List Randomization Method”, the researchers find that, overall, under list randomization, 15 per cent respondents said there is sexual violence, as against just 5.6 percent in direct questioning, which “indicates a 9.4 per cent underreporting.”
However, the researchers find that a whopping19 per cent Hindus females report domestic violence as against 12 per cent males under the list randomization method. Under direct questioning, 6 per cent Hindu females and 6 per cent Hindu males report sexual violence.
Among the Muslims females, under the list randomization method, 13 per cent report domestic violence, as against 11 per cent males. As for direct questioning, it is 5 per cent for Muslim females and 6 per cent for Muslim males.
And as for Christians, 14 per cent females reported domestic violence under list randomization method, as against 11 per cent males, though under direct questioning, it was five per cent for both males and females.
The researchers quote the National Family Health Survey of India (2005-06) to point out that the percentage of ever-married women, who have experienced physical violence at the hands of their husbands in Kerala, is 15.3 percent, compared to 35.1 percent for India as a whole.
The report is significant against the backdrop of the fact that Kerala, to quote the researchers, has “a favorable female sex ratio of 1,058 females to 1,000 males compared to India’s 933, a high female literacy rate of 92.1 percent compared to India’s 65.5 percent, and a high female life expectancy rate of 77 years compared to the national 67.7 years.”
“Quite surprisingly”, the report says, “Underreporting in the case of domestic violence tends to be highest among the professionally educated who typically hold medical, engineering, or management degrees, followed by the least educated group with an educational attainment of secondary school and below.”
“In particular, both women and men with professional degrees have the highest rate of underreporting, with men having at least a marginally higher rate of underreporting than women in this category”, it adds.

Comments

TRENDING

Top upper caste judges 'biased' towards Dalit colleagues: US Bar Association report

By Rajiv Shah  A high profile report prepared by the influential  American Bar Association (ABA) Center for Human Rights , taking note of the fact that “in the 70-year history of the Indian Republic, only six Dalit judges have been appointed to the Supreme Court”, has taken strong exception to what it calls “lack of representation of Dalits” in the legal profession and the judiciary.

Unlike other revolutionaries, Hindutva icon wrote 5 mercy petitions to British masters

By Shamsul Islam*  The Hindutva icon VD Savarkar of the RSS-BJP rulers of India submitted not one, two,or three but five mercy petitions to the British masters! Savarkarites argue: “There are no evidences to prove that Savarkar collaborated with the British for his release from jail. In fact, his appeal for release was a ruse. He was well aware of the political developments outside and wanted to be part of it. So he kept requesting for his release. But the British authorities did not trust him a bit” (YD Phadke, ‘A complex Hero’, "The Indian Expres"s, August 31, 2004)

Savarkar 'criminally betrayed' Netaji and his INA by siding with the British rulers

By Shamsul Islam* RSS-BJP rulers of India have been trying to show off as great fans of Netaji. But Indians must know what role ideological parents of today's RSS/BJP played against Netaji and Indian National Army (INA). The Hindu Mahasabha and RSS which always had prominent lawyers on their rolls made no attempt to defend the INA accused at Red Fort trials.

Whither SDG goal? India's maternal mortality rate fall target 5.5% per yr, actual 4.5%

By Srinivas Goli, Parul Puri* The maternal mortality ratio (number of maternal deaths per one lakh live births) is a key and sensitive parameter used by health policymakers to monitor maternal health conditions in particular and women's status in general in a country.

Fresh efforts to subsume Buddhism within Hindu fold 'undermining' Ambedkar

By Aviral Anand*  From Yeola in 1935, when Dr Ambedkar announced that he would not die a Hindu, to Nagpur in 1956 when he converted to Buddhism, is a considerable distance in time. But, there was in him a need to make a public announcement in 1935 about moving away from Hinduism. 

How green revolution led to 'deterioration' of Punjab economy, land, air and water

By Dr Gian Singh*  A recent research paper, based on a survey of 320 farming families in four districts of Punjab, has tried to show that high crop densities and the use of inputs have led to degradation of land, air, water and humans through a rich agricultural structure. Although mechanization has increased agricultural productivity, it has also caused environmental degradation.

Savarkar 'opposed' Bhagat Singh's, Netaji's dream of India, supported British war efforts

By Shamsul Islam* In a shocking development, the student wing of the RSS put the busts of martyrs Bhagat Singh and Subhash Chandra Bose with Savarkar's on one pedestal at the University of Delhi late in the night on August 20, 2019. Bhagat Singh sacrificed his life for a socialist-democratic-secular republic and Netaji raised Azad Hind Fauj (INA) consisting of people of all religions and regions for armed liberation of India.

Buddhist shrines were 'massively destroyed' by Brahmanical rulers: Historian DN Jha

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

Reverse progress in fight against hunger? 15.3% of India undernourished: GHI

By Harchand Ram*  Every year October 16 is observed as World Food Day to celebrate the date of the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. In the year 2021, the theme for World Food Day is “Our actions are our Future-Better Production, better nutrition, a better environment, and a better life”.

Abysmal deficit of water, food waste recycle treatment 'impacting' Chennai life

By Simi Mehta*  We are living in a state where the most basic needs like food and water are not assured to the people residing in the urban areas, which account for the biggest sources of food and water wastage. Socio-economic inequality in society which is pervasive in urban areas is one of the main reasons for this.