Skip to main content

India's 703 land conflicts "locked" 7.2% of GDP in last 3 years: Oxfam-supported report

By Our Representative
Identifying 703 ongoing land conflicts across India over the last three years, a new Land Conflict Watch (LCW) report has said that these have impacted over 65 lakh people and 21 lakh hectares (ha) of land, with "locked-in investments amounting to over Rs 13.7 lakh crore.
"Most of these conflicts were triggered by infrastructure-related projects and many involve common lands and not just private lands", the report, titled "Locating the Breach: Mapping the nature of land conflicts in India", states.
Supported by the high-profile international NGO Oxfam, the report says, "Infrastructure development, led by townships and real estate schemes, along with roads and irrigation projects, are causing the highest number (43%) of land conflicts, followed by conservation and forestry related activities (15%), such as compensatory afforestation plantation and wildlife conservation schemes."
Asserting that more than three lakh people have been impacted by 300 infrastructure-related conflicts, the report says, land conflicts over mining projects are the second highest cause of distress, with 8,52,488 citizens affected.
Giving details of the 703 projects involving Rs 13.7 lakh crore, the report says, these are "committed, earmarked, and potential investments", constituting 7.2% of India's GDP for 2018–19, though adding, "The total quantum of investment locked in all the documented conflicts is likely to be substantially higher."
It states, investments in infrastructure-related projects worth over Rs 7 lakh crore have been embroiled in land conflicts, apart from investments worth Rs 2.8 lakh crore in the power sector and Rs 2.7 lakh crore in the industrial sector, adding, "These are conservative ļ¬gures as ascertainable data are not available for all 703 cases."
Pointing out that 68% of land conflicts relate to common lands, impacting 79% of all people affected by land conflicts, the report says, 12% of India's districts are officially affected by Left-wing extremis. These districts account for 17% of the total conflicts, constitute 31% of the conflict affected area, and 15% of the people impacted by conflicts.
According to the report, 60% of all mining related conflicts are found in Fifth Schedule districts, where forest-dwellers, mainly adivasis, live, adding, 75% of all conservation and forestry related conflicts, and 51.4% of mining related conflicts, involved the violation or non-implementation of the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006.
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs records, the Government of India recognises Fifth Schedule areas in 100 districts across 10 states (Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Telangana). of these, the report says, 182 land conflicts exist in 77 districts.
Further, says the report, acquisition of private lands is a reason for conflicts in 37.8% cases. Such cases impact over 30 lakh people and contribute to 71.4% of all investments locked in such conflicts. In 104 cases, the dispute has been going on for at least two decades, and in another 149 conflicts, the cases have remained unresolved for at least a decade.
Noting that in 188 cases (27%), private companies or businesses are involved in conflict, the report says, conflicts that involve both common and private lands are spread over the largest area – 14.5 lakh ha – and affect the highest investment of Rs 8.8 lakh crore.
Nearly 60% of all mining related conflicts are found in Fifth Schedule districts, where forest-dwellers, mainly adivasis, live
The Union Ministry of Home Affairs has identidied 90 districts in 11 states Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Kerala, where, the report says, there is land conflict-related violence caused by armed rebellious groups claiming adherence to extreme-Left ideologies arw waging war against the state.
As for the involvement of the land acquisition laws of 1984 and 2013 and the FRA in ongoing land conflict cases, the report says, a review of forestlands suggests 52% of conflicts did not have reference of the FRA. In cases involving revenue lands, 62% did not make references to the two land acquisition laws. In all, 308 land conflicts did not include references either to the FRA or revenue land acquisition laws.
Then, says the report, a total of 12 lakh people have been impacted by conflicts involving the FRA, on a total land area of 3,68,138 ha, involving investments that totalled Rs 2.24 lakh crore (Rs 2.24 lakh crore), comprising 16% of all the recorded investments locked in conflicts.
As for the land acquisition laws, the report records 266 such conflicts involving these, adding, both common and private lands, were involved in 138 (52%) of these cases, while in 126 (47%) cases, only private lands were involved.
Though conflicts involving land acquisition laws comprise only 37.8% of all conflicts mapped, they locked in 71.4% of all documented investments, pegged at Rs 9.82 lakh crore, the report adds.

Comments

TRENDING

Buddhist shrines massively destroyed by Brahmanical rulers in "pre-Islamic" era: Historian DN Jha's survey

Nalanda mahavihara By Our Representative Prominent historian DN Jha, an expert in India's ancient and medieval past, in his new book , "Against the Grain: Notes on Identity, Intolerance and History", in a sharp critique of "Hindutva ideologues", who look at the ancient period of Indian history as "a golden age marked by social harmony, devoid of any religious violence", has said, "Demolition and desecration of rival religious establishments, and the appropriation of their idols, was not uncommon in India before the advent of Islam".

Liberating Bengal Hindus? Worst flames of communal division, lessons from the past

By Shamsul Islam*  The whole thrust of the RSS-BJP election campaign for 2021 state assembly elections in West Bengal has been to save Bengal from the rule of Mamata Bannerjee who is allegedly not a ‘Hindu’. Prime Minister Narendra Modi, a self-proclaimed Hindu nationalist, as usual set the polarizing agenda. While addressing the first election rally, he called upon the electorate to overthrow the ‘nirmam’ (cruel) rule of Mamata by showing a ‘Ram Card’. He did not name Hindus directly but there was no confusion about the religious identity of the electorate Indian PM was addressing to.

Pradeep Bhattacharya, who spent his life for the cause of working masses, rational thinking

By YS Gill*  At 11:30 pm on May 3, 2021, I lost my best friend and comrade Pradeep Bhattacharya. He spent his life dedicated to the cause of the working masses and rational thinking. A person of thorough scientific outlook and a well-read student of Marxian thought, he was a walking encyclopedia and could speak on a wide variety of topics from art and culture to science, philosophy, history and politics.

Swami Vivekananda's views on caste and sexuality were 'painfully' regressive

By Bhaskar Sur* Swami Vivekananda now belongs more to the modern Hindu mythology than reality. It makes a daunting job to discover the real human being who knew unemployment, humiliation of losing a teaching job for 'incompetence', longed in vain for the bliss of a happy conjugal life only to suffer the consequent frustration.

Rs 5 crore 'demand' for India Today anchor: What about 52 lesser souls who died in April?

By Vidya Bhushan Rawat*  A well known Hindutva protagonist masquerading as journalist passed away recently resulting in messages of condolences and tribute right from the Prime Minister and the Home Minister to progressive liberals expressing grief of his untimely death. It is said that he passed away due to cardiac arrest, though the fact is, he was also Covid infected. The Prime Minister and the Home Minister termed him a ‘brave’ journalist, insisting, his passing away has left a big ‘vacuum’.

Modi's Hindutva 'ensuring' empowerment of rich, disenfranchisement of poor

Bhabani Shankar Nayak*  The Hindutva socio-psychopaths are neither nationalists nor patriotic people. These medieval reactionary forces don’t understand the idea of citizenship, justice, liberty, equality and humanism. Indian democracy is merely an electoral transaction for the Hindutva forces. Hindutva forces neither follow science nor understand the sufferings of fellow human beings. These core qualities are common among the Hindutva forces in India.

Communal rhetoric? Hindutva preached by RSS-BJP is 'monolithic', not Hinduism

By Prem Verma*  I am a devout Hindu but not a believer of RSS Hindutva form of Hinduism which brings about hatred of other religions. My Hindu religion has not taught me to look down on other religions and neither has it instilled in me to go about converting others to my religion because my religion is superior.

India's Covid-19 'nightmare': A product of majoritarian Hindutva ideological praxis?

By Bhabani Shankar Nayak*  Indians struggle to find place and time to bury their dead due to the devastating effects of the second wave of Covid-19 in India. The crematoriums in the capital cities are overflowing with dead bodies. People are dying without oxygen and basic medical support. The cities like Delhi and Mumbai are struggling to cope with the rising number of infections and COVID-19 led deaths. The deaths and destitutions are products of a defunct BJP government led by Narendra Modi.

Despite crisis, Modi's Hindutva strategy 'increased' mass base in society and polity

By Bhabani Shankar Nayak*  Narendra Modi and his RSS brethren can qualify as masters of fake claims. There is a long lists of lies spread by RSS, BJP and their IT cell workers. It is not a personality disorder or lying with fear. They are trained to defend Modi and his government’s decisions in whatever possible way. They defended demonetisation by arguing that it is “an important step” in his fight against black money and corruption.

Indian media persons collapsing to Covid disease as fast as 3 per day, third highest

Yogesh Sharma, Shailesh Rawal  By Our Representative  The Switzerland based media rights and safety body, Press Emblem Campaign ( PEC ) has said that it is “alarming for Indian journalists”, who have lost at least 107 colleagues to Covid-19”, noting, Indian “journo-colleagues” have been collapsing to the Covid-19 complications now as fast as three scribes per day. In a statement, PEC said, “India with 107 media corona-casualties has already placed itself on the third position just below Brazil (181 dead) and Peru (140) in the list of Covid-19 victims among journalist.”