Skip to main content

Job loss a major issue among international in-migrants: Evidence from PLFS 2020-21

By Dr Puneet Kumar Shrivastav, Sharmistha Sinha*
December 18th is declared as the International Migrants Day every year since 2000 by the United Nations General Assembly. The International Migrants Day has been recognised as a day to reflect on the role of migrants in our societies, their positive contributions and the challenges they face in achieving their full potential and capabilities.
This day is also a reminder that human rights are not ‘earned’ by virtue of being a hero or a victim, but are an entitlement for everyone, regardless of origin, age, gender and status. Migration is a dynamic phenomenon, constantly requiring policy interventions in order to maximize its potential benefits and minimize related costs in the context of socio-economy of the migrants' place of origin and destination.
Be it for work, to join family, to study, to upgrade quality of living or to escape conflicts or in response to the adverse effects of climate change or natural disasters, or other environmental factors, humanity has been constantly on the move. Today, more people than ever are migrants.
According to the World Migration Report 2022, globally, as of 2019,  the number of international migrants was estimated to be almost 281 million (which is 3.6 per cent of total population), 128 million more than what was in 1990. Out of this, 169 million were migrant workers, up from 164 million in 2017. Nearly, 20 per cent of the migrants originate from South Asia, including India, which accounts for the largest number of migrants living abroad (18 million).
The Covid-19 pandemic restricted the movement as well as migration both globally and locally. In the aftermath of the Covid-19, the international migration has started once again across the globe.
The Migration in India Report 2020-21 of the National Statistical Office (NSO) suggests that in the aftermath of Covid-19, in India, the migration rate was 28.9 percent for in-migrants. According to  Government of India (GoI) estimates, India being a country of more than 135 crore, 39 crore are migrants. The estimate is based on the survey of members of the households at Place of Enumerations (PoE) on in-migrants whose PoE is different from their last UPR (Usual Place of Residence).
The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) data on migration also reported that out of total migrants, the share of international migrants would be less than one percent (0.75 percent, as unit level data) whose last UPR was another country at current PoE and estimated to be 2.9 million approximately, which means nearly 3 million persons in India are international in-migrants during 2020-21.
The estimates also suggest that out of total international migrants, nearly a quarter of them (24.7 percent) have left their UPR (which was in a country other than India) due to job loss/ lack of employment opportunity in another country in which they were residing prior coming to India. 
This seems to be a major cause of concern for the country, as it would adversely impact on the remittances from other countries. As per the World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief, India was a recipient for remittance to the tune of $89 billion in 2021, and remained the top recipient among the low- and middle-income countries category. The amount of remittance has been on rapid rise since 2005.
However, more recently, around 18 percent migrated to India from another country in order to search an employment/ better employment/ or to work in India, which means they consider India a better place to get a work opportunity as per their aspirations. Another important reason for migration among the international migrants was migration of parents/ earning members of the family.
Further, the State-wise distribution of such international in-migrants depicts that Kerala has been the State of highest number of international in migrants with a share of 46.5 percent followed by West Bengal (17.8 percent), Tamil Nadu (10.2 percent), Uttar Pradesh (7.8 percent) and Gujarat (2.5 percent).
---
*Respectively: assistant director and deputy director, National Institute of Labour Economics Research & Development (NILERD), under NITI Aayog, Government of India. Views are personal

Comments

TRENDING

Vaccine nationalism? Covaxin isn't safe either, perhaps it's worse: Experts

By Rajiv Shah  I was a little awestruck: The news had already spread that Astrazeneca – whose Indian variant Covishield was delivered to nearly 80% of Indian vaccine recipients during the Covid-19 era – has been withdrawn by the manufacturers following the admission by its UK pharma giant that its Covid-19 vector-based vaccine in “rare” instances cause TTS, or “thrombocytopenia thrombosis syndrome”, which lead to the blood to clump and form clots. The vaccine reportedly led to at least 81 deaths in the UK.

'Scientifically flawed': 22 examples of the failure of vaccine passports

By Vratesh Srivastava*   Vaccine passports were introduced in late 2021 in a number of places across the world, with the primary objective of curtailing community spread and inducing "vaccine hesitant" people to get vaccinated, ostensibly to ensure herd immunity. The case for vaccine passports was scientifically flawed and ethically questionable.

'Misleading' ads: Are our celebrities and public figures acting responsibly?

By Deepika* It is imperative for celebrities and public figures to act responsibly while endorsing a consumer product, the Supreme Court said as it recently clamped down on misleading advertisements.

A Hindu alternative to Valentine's Day? 'Shiv-Parvati was first love marriage in Universe'

By Rajiv Shah*   The other day, I was searching on Google a quote on Maha Shivratri which I wanted to send to someone, a confirmed Shiv Bhakt, quite close to me -- with an underlying message to act positively instead of being negative. On top of the search, I chanced upon an article in, imagine!, a Nashik Corporation site which offered me something very unusual. 

US 'frustrated' with India’s discomfort: Maritime exercise in South China Sea

By Vijay Prashad*  In early April 2024, the navies of four countries -- Australia, Japan, the Philippines, and the United States -- held a maritime exercise in the South China Sea. Australia’s Warramunga, Japan’s Akebono, the Philippines’ Antonio Luna, and the United States’ Mobile worked together in these waters to strengthen their joint abilities and -- as they said in a joint statement  -- to “uphold the right to freedom of navigation and overflight and respect for maritime rights under international law.” 

Dadi, poti discuss 'injustice' under 10 yr Modi rule: Video campaign goes viral

By Our Representative  Watan Ki Raah Mein, a civil society campaign of the Samvidhan Bachao Nagrik Abhiyan, has released a short video conversation on social media of an exchange of letters between a dadi and her poti discussing poverty, unemployment, corruption and women’s safety. The letters also raise the question of  suppression of our fundamental rights of speech, expression and justice. 

Magnetic, stunning, Protima Bedi 'exposed' malice of sexual repression in society

By Harsh Thakor*  Protima Bedi was born to a baniya businessman and a Bengali mother as Protima Gupta in Delhi in 1949. Her father was a small-time trader, who was thrown out of his family for marrying a dark Bengali women. The theme of her early life was to rebel against traditional bondage. It was extraordinary how Protima underwent a metamorphosis from a conventional convent-educated girl into a freak. On October 12th was her 75th birthday; earlier this year, on August 18th it was her 25th death anniversary.

India 'not keen' on legally binding global treaty to reduce plastic production

By Rajiv Shah  Even as offering lip-service to the United Nations Environment Agency (UNEA) for the need to curb plastic production, the Government of India appears reluctant in reducing the production of plastic. A senior participant at the UNEP’s fourth session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC-4), which took place in Ottawa in April last week, told a plastics pollution seminar that India, along with China and Russia, did not want any legally binding agreement for curbing plastic pollution.

No compensation to family, reluctance to file FIR: Manual scavengers' death

By Arun Khote, Sanjeev Kumar*  Recently, there have been four instances of horrifying deaths of sewer/septic tank workers in Uttar Pradesh. On 2 May, 2024, Shobran Yadav, 56, and his son Sushil Yadav, 28, died from suffocation while cleaning a sewer line in Lucknow’s Wazirganj area. In another incident on 3 May 2024, two workers Nooni Mandal, 36 and Kokan Mandal aka Tapan Mandal, 40 were killed while cleaning the septic tank in a house in Noida, Sector 26. The two workers were residents of Malda district of West Bengal and lived in the slum area of Noida Sector 9.